Sunday, February 26, 2012



    This is one of the Siddhanta Ashtakam composed by Saint Umapati Sivacharya. The name means a Poem in Venba met containing queries; and is in the nature of Irupa Irupahtu St. Arul Nandi Sivacharya, and contains a number of Philosophical paradoxes. The object is to bring more into prominent how Saiva Siddhanta reconciles our various difficulties in philosophical investigation. We give the text and translation with such notes are necessary.

    நீடுமொளியு நிறையிருளு மோரிடத்துக்

    கூடலரிது கொடுவினையேன் – பாடிதன்முன்

    ஒன்றவார் சோலை யுயர்மருதச் சம்பந்தர்

    நின்றவா றெவ்வாறு நீ.


    The spreading Light and darkness deep in same

    Place doth not join. In me great sinner 'fore

    In union, Oh Sambantha of Maruthur

    By lofty groves girt round, How didst Thou stand.                (1)



    The author speaks of his condition before sighting his Guru because his mala left him by the Satgurudarsana. But God dwelt in Him before, and yet he did not profit by it. His Pasa acted as a veil between him and God, as the cataract covering the eye prevents him from seeing the sun which shines all through.                    

    இருளி லொளிபுரையு மெய்துங் கலாதி

    மருளி னிலையருளு மானுங் கருவியிவை

    நீங்கி னிருளா நிறைமருதச் சம்பந்தா

    வீங்குன்னாருளா வென் பெற.


    In darkness doth light vanish, in Kala's

    Joined, evil doth persist. The organs rare

    Removed, the darkness fills again Oh Lord,

    Here then of what use it Thy divine grace.                    (2)



    Even in all these conditions of the soul, the Divine Grace is ever active and he creates, protects, resolves and obscures. He is ever with us, even in our worst acts and is giving us help and grace to get over our toils. When we can fully recognize His ever active Presence and submit our Will to His, then do we reach the Suddha condition and God's Bliss.

    புல்லறிவு நல்லுணர்வ தாகா பொதுஞான

    மல்லதில துள்ளதெனி லந்நியமாந் – தொல்லையிரு

    ளானமலை யாவா றுயர்மருதச் சம்பந்தா

    ஞானமலை யாவாய் நவில்.


    The small does not become the Perfect Mind,

    Is common sense. If Perfect Mind doth rise

    Anew, it can't be true; Oh Sambantha

    Of old faults free, Oh Rock of Wisdom, say.                    (3)



    The intelligence of the soul by itself is neither small nor imperfect and it does not grow big nor perfect by evolution. It is perfect in a sense but its intelligence is covered, veiled as a crystal cleansed of dirt. And then the Light which it by Anava and when this is removed, it shines bright again, reflects is not its own but of the Lords, and It was passing through the crystal even when dirt covered, but is only reflected after the cleansing. So this Sivajnanam is neither the Intelligence of the soul, nor did it arise anew, when the soul recovered itself. These points have to be borne very clearly in mind in trying to understand the basic principles of Saiva Siddhanta; otherwise it is apt to be confused with other systems.

    கனவு கனவென்று காண்பரிதாங் காணின்

    நனவிலவை சிறிது நண்ணா – முனைவனருள்

    தானவற்றி னொன்றா தடமருதச் சம்பந்தா

    யானவத்தைக் காணாமா றென்.


    The Dream cannot be seen as dream in dream;

    If seen awake, it cannot be pursues;

    Lord's Grace? He doth not join the avastas.

    How then, Oh Lord, do I perceive the same?                    (4)



    One cannot think thought but when he rises to the Highest Suddha condition this is in a sense possible.         


    அறிவறிந்த தெல்லா மசத்தாகு மாயின்

    குறிபிறந்த நின்னுணர்விற் கூடா – பொறிபுலன்கள்

    தாமா வறியா தடமருதச் சம்பந்தா

    யாமா ரறிவா ரினி.




All that perceived by mind is Asat, so

    Thy Mind beyond all mark I can't perceive,

    Sense organs can't perceive by themselves, Lord

    Of Maruthur; What then am I see?                    (5)



    All that we can perceive can be objective only. The object cannot perceive the subject. If we can perceive God, He should become objective to us, but this cannot be, as He is the True subject, the very Thinker of our thoughts, as the Upanishad (Brihad-II,4,13) pertinently puts it, "How should he know Him by Whom he knows all this? How, Oh beloved, should he know the Knower?"

    "Thou couldst not see the seer of sight; thou couldst not hear the hearer of hearing; thou couldst not perceive the perceiver of perception; nor know the knower of knowledge. This is thy Atma (God) Who is within all. Everything else is of evil (Asat)." (Brihad.III, 4,2).


    The Taitiriyopanishad declares (II.9). "From all words fall back, not reaching and mind as well." Man can perceive God by His Grace alone. "A man who has left all grief behind sees the Majesty, The Lord, The Passionless by the Grace of the Creator." (Svetas, III, 20).                                            

    சிற்றறிவு முற்சிதையிற் சேர்வாரின் றாஞ்சிறிது

    மற்றதனி னிற்கிலருள் மன்னாவாந் – துற்றமுகின்

    மின்கொண்ட சோலை வியன்மருதச் சம்பந்தா

    வென்கொண்டு காண்பே னியான்.    


    If self is lost before, there is none to join;

    If self remains in part, Grace will not fall,

    Oh Sambantha of Mauthur, with groves

    Cloud-capped, with what can I perceive Thy Self?            (6)



    This states the same puzzle which St. Meikandan had stated before in XI, 2, 5. In mukti union, if soul perishes before union, then there is nothing to unite with God. If it does not perish, there will be duality. Losing one's mala, it sinks into God as the salt dissolved in water losing not its personality but its individuality, its sense of 'I-ness' and 'my-ness,' 'நான்கெட்டு' dedicating all its acts and Will to God, it is then he becomes One with God, or God alone becomes Supreme "நான்கெட்டு சிவமானவா", " சென்று சென்று அணுவாய் தேய்ந்துதேய்ந்து ஒன்றாம் திருப்பெருந்துறைசிவன்."                




உன்னரிய நின்னுணர்வ தோங்கியக்கா வொண்கருவி

    தன்னளவு நண்ணறிது தாதை – மென்னறிவு

    தானறிய வாரா தடமருதத் சம்பந்தா

    வானறிவ தெவ்வா றினி.


    Thy grace past Thought when It did rise, the bright

    Tattvas can't apprehend. And my own Jnan

    Can't sense the same. O Lord of Maruthur

    By large ponds girt, How then can I know Thee?        (7)


    அருவே லுருவன்று உருவே லருவன்

    றிருவேறு மொன்றிற் கிசையா – வுருவோரிற்

    காணில் உயர்கடந்தைச் சம்பந்தா கண்டவுடற்

    பூணுமிறைக் கென்னாம் புகல்.


    If formless God can have no form, if with form,

    He can't be formless; both can't apply to one,

    O Sambantha of Tirukadanthai,

    How then does God assume His blessed Form?        (8)



    Rūpa and Arūpa and Rūpārūpa are all terms applying to matter. God is not matter and is Pure Chit. And all His Forms are out of Chit, out of His Chit-Sakti, of the Form of grace Divine, and He can assume any Form He likes and in which He is thought of by His Bhaktas. See verses 38 to 70 of Sutra I, of Siddhiyar and my notes thereon.

    இருமலத்தார்க் கில்லை யுடல்வினையென் செய்யும்

    ஒருமலத்தார்க் காரை யுரைப்பேன் – திரிமலத்தார்

    ஒன்றாக வுள்ளா ருயர்மருதச் சம்பந்தா

    அன்றாகி லாமா றருள்.


    Those with two Malas have not body sure

    How will Karma affect? What then of Those

    With one Mala? The Three mala covered stand

    Alone, Oh Lord, if not, How then explain?            (9)



    There is often a misunderstanding that when Vijnanakalars, Pralayakalars, and Sakalars said respectively to have one mala, two and three respectively, the first two classes have no corporeal bodies. The author tries to remove this misapprehension and we had long ago tried to point this out in our table of Tattvas (Vide Studies in Saiva Siddhanta page 35). The third mala here means only Asuddha Maya and Pralayakalars and Vijnanakalars have their bodies in Suddha Maya Tattva such as Nadha, Vindu &c.

    ஒன்றிரண்டாய் நின்றுணரி லோர்மையதா மொன்றாக

    நின்றிரண்டா மென்னிலுயிர் நேராகும் – துன்றிருந்தார்

    தாங்கியவாழ் தண்கடந்தைச் சம்பந்தா யானாகி

    யோங்கியவா றெவ்வா றுரை.


    If One did part in two and one become

    True One-ness won't result. If Two, One doth

    Become, the soul will die. Oh Kadanthai's Lord

    How then did I become raised as Sivam.            (10)


    The old puzzle is stated in another form. The relation between the two is Advaita or ananya and the soul's nature and connection is such that it becomes one with whatever it is attached to losing its own individuality. But for this peculiar nature of Jiva, postulated in Siddhanta this One-ness is not possible.                    

    காண்பா னுங் காட்டுவதும் நீத்துண்மை

    காண்பார்கள் நன்முத்தி காணார்கள் – காண்பானும்

    காட்டுவதும் காண்பதுவுங் தண்கடந்தைச் சம்பந்தன்

    வாட்டுநெறி வாரா தவர்.


    The seer, the sight and seen devoid one sees

    True Freedom wont result. With seer and seen

    And sight if they do see, they are those who

    Fell not in the burning path of my great Lord.        (11)


    This gives the true doctrine of Jnathuru, Jnana and Jneya. It does not mean that all such perception of God's Power and Bliss and Presence is lost. If so, there can be no real mukti. What is meant is there is no objective Perception of God by the soul or சுட்டுணர்வு. It is when the soul loses this சுட்டுணர்வு and sinks more and more into God, it can feel His Grace.                                        


மிடையி விடமில்லை – யொன்றித்

    தெரியா வருண்மருதச் சம்பந்தா சேர்ந்து

    பிரியாவா றெவ்வாறு பேசு.



While one perform Karmic acts and eats fruits

    There's e'er no place of his own self. O Lord

    Who present everywhere dost shower Grace

    Say how I can ne'er separate after.                    (12)


    It is God that secures the deserts of each according to his karma, in bhanda, as He is with them in all their acts and in all their enjoyments. When freed also, though they perform karma it is God. That enjoys the fruits of karma and not the Jivanmukta. They are not tainted by the karma they do, as had dedicated all their acts to God.            

    அருளா ளுணர்வார்க்கு அகலாத செம்மைப்

    பொருளாக நிற்கும் பொருந்தி – தெருளா

    வினாவெண்பா வுண்மை வினாவாரே லூமன்

    கனாவின்பால எய்துவிக்குங் காண்.


    With Grace one tries to know, its lasting truth

    Will appear without doubt. If other wise

    They do not care to know this Poem's Truth

    It will be like the fool in dream drinking middle.            (13)


Praise to Saint Umapatisivam.

Saturday, February 25, 2012

Light on the True Path




    [This is also one of the fourteen Siddhanta Sastras, and it deals with the subject of Dasakarya or the Ten spiritual conquests of the soul. There are learned treatises on the subject in Sanskrit but none of them have been translated into Tamil, nor are the original treatises available even in print. Sriman P.M. Muttiah Pillai avergal of Tuticorin brought out a small brochure on the same subject in Tamil prose, over which a sharp controversy has raged. With all its faults it is however valuable, Dr. V.V.Ramanan's contribution to this Journal in Vol X pp. 43-47 and 113-117 will be also of the utmost use to the student. Dasa-Karayam means ten kinds of actions or Karma and is not to be confounded with the three-fold karma which binds the soul and gives rise to birth and death and suffering. On the other hand these are steps taken by the aspirant for conquering birth and death. Though some of them have been set forth in the upanishads it is in the Saiva Agamas they have been clearly analyzed and systemized and a full and complete code of action is given. These are actual psychical and spiritual processes and unless they are practiced and realized one cannot possibly understand them. We do not lay claim to any such knowledge or practice, but in pursuance of a certain duty, we place the letter of the law before the public, so that those who may profited by it. These Dasakarya are Tattva Rupa, Tattva Darsana or Katchi, Tattva suddhi, Atma-Rupa, Atma Darsana, Atma Suddhi, Siva-Rupa, Siva-Darsana Siva-yoga, and Siva-Bhoga. We may also mention that Kachchiappa Munivar, disciple of the famous Sivajnana Munivar, gives a paraphrase of St. Umapathisivam's verses in his learned Tanikaippuranam Nandiupadesapadalam verses, 121 to 125.]

    மண்முதற் சிவமதீறாய் வடிவுகாண் பதுவேரூபம்

    மண்முதற் சிவமதீறாய் மலஞ்சட மென்றல்காட்சி

    மண்முதற் சிவமதீறாய் வகையதிற் றானிலாது

    கண்ணுதல் அருளால்நீங்கல் சுத்தியாய்க் கருதலாமே.        (1)


    From Earth to Sivam each its form to see is Tattva Rupa;

    From Earth to Sivam, is each mala inert,

    Perceiving this is Tattva Darsanam

    From Earth to Sivam, not established in them,

    Through Siva's grace, one doth sunder oneself

    Is Tattva Suddhi, so the wise declare.






    The word Tattva is defined by Professor MacDonnell as (thatness), very essence, true nature, truth reality, principle – (especially one of the 25 in the Sankhyan philosophy). So that it really was synonymous with the word Sat and we have elsewhere shown how the compound Sat and Asat originally meant Prakriti or maya whose components were the 25 principles from earth to Prakriti of the Sankhyana and Vedantins. According to the Agamanta these tattvas are 36, 11 over and above the 25, the authorities for which see Sri Kasivasi Senthinathier's Tattva catechism. Man is other than 36 tattvas though bound in their toils. God is above the 36 tattvas. And the Svetasvatara Upanishad declares "As a metal disk (mirror) tarnished by dust shines bright again after it has been cleaned so is the one incarnate person satisfied and free from grief after he has seen the real nature of his Atma (II. 14).

    "And when by the real nature of his Atma, be sees as by a lamp the real nature of Brahman, then having known the Unborn, Eternal Deva Who is beyond all Tattvas, (sarvattavair) he is freed from all Pasa." (II. 15).

    These two mantras by the way contain by the way the gist of the Dasakarya, and the several steps in Salvation.

    The nature of each tattva that binds one has to be seen, and that this in its nature is only matter and unintelligent and that it is impure, and after thus distinguishing the tattvas for himself, and knowing how he gets bound by identifying himself with them, he must get out of their hold, by holding to the Lord, and thus purify himself. This is tattva suddhi as shown in this verse and in the 14th Mantra. This does not involve, as we have repeatedly shown that we should regard these tattvas themselves as false or the bondage as false. These tattvas*[*In the same way as the word 'sat' has come to mean God, the word Tattva has also come to mean God. (தத்துவன்).] as their very root meaning shows are a truth in themselves, as also the bondage. We know how the bondage came about by identifying oneself with them, and the first step in cleansing oneself of this impurity, in getting freed of their fetters, (Pasa) is to detach oneself from them. ('வகையதிற்றானிலாது'). In this heroic effort of the soul in its battle against all passion and the flesh, its true help is the unseen Helper, Whose grace is ever and always with us to fore rain as the Devara Hymn puts it. Without its firm hold on God, this freedom is only a name, we have shown in our notes to Sivajnana Siddhiyar


பாயிருணீங்கி ஞானந்தனைக் காண்டலான்ம ரூபம்

    நீயுநின் செயலொன்றின்றி நிற்றலே தரிசனந்தான்

    போயிவன் றன்மைகெட்டுப் பொருளிற்போ யங்குத்தோன்றா

    தாயிடிலான்ம சுத்தியருணுவின் விதித்தவாறே.        (2)




Great gloom removed, one sees his knowing self,

    This is atma Rupa. It is Darsan

    When you alone do stand, of actions shorn,

    This is Atma Suddhi, Agamas say.



    In the chain of Salvation herein sketched one ring is attached to the other. One in a sense overlaps the other. The moment one detaches oneself from the Tattvas (Tattva Suddhi) one stands apart, and knows that he is not dead, inert and impure body, and that he is an intelligent being. This is Atma-rupa. Then he knows that all the afflictions he has been suffering from, from the enduring taint of anava, like hate and love, are no more his, as he is Jnana svarupa, and the afflictions were begotten of his identifying himself with the Tattvas. But though he can differentiate between non-intelligent Tattvas and his own intelligent and thus form an idea of his self, can he see his own form? This will be thinking thought an impossibility, like the eye trying to see itself. But still it is declared he could cognize himself even though it be for a moment, before he plunges his self in the supreme self and becomes lost to view (Tattva suddhi). This sight of self is possible when after absolute detachment, one stands still without thought or action, like a flame undisturbed by wind in a sheltered spot. This is only for a moment as the next stage (atma suddhi) supervenes at once. His momentary individuality is lost, and he identifies himself with the supreme as he had just a few moments before he had been identifying himself with the Tattvas. The latter condition is 'ஆணவத்தோடு அத்துவிதம்', and the former is 'மெய்ஞ்ஞானத்தாணுவினோடு அத்துவிதம்'. So that except at the point of Atma Darsana, the soul never retains its individuality, but identifies itself with the Tattvas on God. Hence as I have elsewhere shown the fallacy of the Buddhists and Prachchamia Buddhists who deny the reality and individuality of the soul.

    எவ்வுடிவுகளுந் தானாய் யெழிற்பரை வடிவதாகி,

    கவ்வியமலத் தான்மாவைக் கருதியே யொடுக்கியாக்கி

    பவ்வம்விண் டகலப்பண்ணி பாரிப்பானொருவ னென்று

    செவ்னையே யுயிரிற்காண்டல் சிவரூப மாகுமன்றே.        (3)


    Becoming all forms, of the Form of the beautiful Parai,

    Whirling the Soul in birth and death in mala's noose,

    There is One who doth remove the sins and show great grace,

    To see this One in one's soul bright is Siva Rupa.


    The soul regained its true form, when it detached itself from the Tattvas. It stood still for a moment and plunged itself in Sivam. Just at the moment of the plunge, the soul gains a knowledge of the Form of God. But where is to be seen? Like his own, it is not individualized. The soul could however distinguish itself from God. He is not the sinning and mala bound soul. He is one who joining it to the wheel of Samsara by giving it Tanu, Karana, Bhuvana and Bhoga from maya, lifted it out of the deep darkness and caused malaparipaka and appeared in Person as the Parama Guru and showed its grace, and entered its heart, of the size of the Thumb. And yet He was everywhere and everything. And all this He became as He is Pure chit, Parasakti. This perception of God as all, all is Sivamayam, is Siva Rupa The importance of the word Sivamayam which everyone prefixes to his writing will thus be apparent. It is an experience, and a great experience in all our thoughts. With this idea to guide us throughout, oh, how well our actions will be transformed from being Ahankara into Siva Akara. Then no evil will flow from our word and act and thought, but peace and good will, kindness and charity, love and Ananda.

    பரையுயிரில் யானென சென்றற நின்றதடியாம்

        பார்ப்பிடமெங்குஞ் சிவமாய்த் தோன்றுத லதுமுகமாம்,

    உரையிறந்த சுகமதுவே முடியாகு மென்றிவ்

        வுண்மையினை மிகத்தெளிந்து பொருள் வேறொன்றின்றின்றித்

    தரைமுதலிற் போகாது நிலையினினில்லாது

        தற்பரையி னின்றபூந்தாது அற்புதமே யாகித்,

    தெரிவரிய பரமானந்தத்தில் சேர்தல்

        சிவனுண்மைத் தரிசனமாய்ச் செய்யுநூலே.        (4)


    The Parai's stand in soul, of I-ness and my-ness freed is Siva's Foot,

    Where one sees God in all and everywhere that is Siva's Face,

    The Bliss that is past speech, that alone is Siva's crown,

    This truth perceiving well and seeing naught else than God,

    Not sliding back to earth and like, not standing still,

    Not plunging in the thought that he is God but sure becoming That,

    To unite with that Paramananda so unspeakable,

    This the Vedas say is Siva Darsanam.



    The experience gained in the seventh of the Dasakarya is carried further and a closer realization is reached in this eighth conquest of the soul. There are also certain dangers to be safeguarded in this experience. When one matures in the Sadana there is naught else but God, he is likely to regard himself as God, which Aham Brahma Jnanam. This will not only stop his progress further but will lead him back into the wheel of Samsara; and thus all the up-hill work achieved till now will end in nothing. On the other hand he is absolutely enjoined to sink his individually into the supreme getting cleansed of his Ahankara and mamakara, and then God's grace enters his soul which is Sattinipada. This is Parai or Sakti and The Foot usually symbolizes God's sakti or grace. The author follows the description of the crown as given in Tiruvachakam (18.i) "சோதிமணிமுடிசொல்லிற் சொல்லிறந்து நின்ற தொன்மை" "wouldst hear of his bright jeweled crown? It is glory old that passeth speech.'


        கெய்துயிர் தனைக்கண்டிங் கவ்வுயிர்க்கு மேலா,

    மொப்பிலருள் கண்டுசிவத் துண்மை கண்டிங்

        குற்றதெல்லா மதனாலே பற்றிநோக்கித்,

    தப்பினை செய்வதுமதுவே நினைப்புமது தானே

        தருமுணர்வு புசிப்புமது தானெ யாகி,

    யெப்பொருளு மசைவில்லை யெனவந்தப் பொருளோ

        டிசைவதுவே சிவபோக மெனுமிறைவன் மொழியே.        (5)


    Whatever befalleth one, he sees its truth

    His self who doth it sense, and what transcends,

    The grace beyond compare, The Lord Siva,

    And views all that befell from that standpoint

    And sees that from same grace flow good and bad

    As do all sense and sense-experience,

    And knows that naught can move except through Grace,

    And unites self to Grace that is Siva-yoga



    All the published texts give the reading Siva Boga in the last line, but it is to be taken as meaning Siva-yoga, the ninth Dasakarya, both words meaning the same; and it has to be distinguished from the tenth, Parabhoga. When one reaches this condition, he is not affected by like and dislike nor afflicted by pain and pleasure. He knows how they are caused, they are of the flesh and caused by his attachment to the flesh and he is not the body. Further becomes to look upon them from a higher stand point, from the stand point of Spirit. They have no power in themselves to affect souls, nor the souls to be affected unless this Chetana and Achetana Prapancha is willed to move by the supreme Power of God. All good and bad ultimately flow to him. He is the Final cause and cause of causes. And the final surrender is made 'not as I will but as thou willst.' This is the arpana, Sivarpana, set forth in the 10th Sutra of Sivajnanaboda "ஏகனாகி இறைபணிநிற்க," மலமாயை தன்னொடும் வல்வினையின்றே," when the oneness, advaita union is reached and all the mala, maya and karma lose their power and the final conquest over the flesh is reached Pasatchaya. And the soul is landed in the bliss of the Parabhoga or Siva-Bhoga, the last of the Dasakarya. "பாசங்கழன்றாற் பசுவுங்கிடம் பதியாம்."

    பாதகங்கள் செய்திடினும் கொலைகளவு கள்ளுப்

        பயின்றிடினு நெறியல்லா நெறிபயிற்றி வரினும்

    சாதிநெறி தப்பிடினுந் தவறுகள் வந்திடினும்

        தனக்கென வோர்செயலற்றுத் தானதுவாய் நிற்கின்

    நாதனவனுட லுயிராயுண் டுறங்கி நடந்து

        நானாபோ கங்களையுந் தானாகச்செய்து

    பேதமற நின்றிவ னைத்தா னாக்கிவிடுவன்

        பெருகுசிவ போகமெனப் பேசுநெறி யிதுவே.         (6)


    Even though one commits heinous sins,

    In murder, theft, and drink indulges,

    Treads paths which he ought not to tread,

    Caste rules defies and makes mistakes

    Atones with God, self-action lost,

    Our Lord doth convert sure his soul

    Into His Body and own soul

    And then it's He who eats and sleeps

    And walks and transmutes all Bhoga

    Into His own, all difference lost

    He sure doth make the soul Divine

    This is the path called great Siva Bhoga.



    When the soul is finally cleansed of its sin, He dwells in God and God dwells in Him. He has absolutely no perception of any difference, between himself and God and other things. He enjoys the Bliss Supreme, and he is not even conscious he is so enjoying. In this condition, while he still retains the body, he is called a Jivan-mukta. As a result of this physical covering and environment, he comes into contact with other physical objects and things. Actions necessary follow and whatever they may be, the jivan-mukta is not responsible. No taint can attach to him, as all his Tanu, karana, Bhuvana and Bhoga had all been converted into Siva-Tanu, Siva karana, Siva Bhuvana and Siva-Bhoga. The only condition is the soul must lose all sense of self and the feeling that he is the actor. Then all his acts and burdens become those of the Lord. This is God's great Atonement so wrongly understood in Christian teaching.

    Saint Chandesvara Nayanar's act infelling his father, and St. Manickavachaka;s spending the treasure of his sovereign are mentioned as instances of his principle herein enunciated.

Hail All Hail to Saint Umapati.