Saturday, March 31, 2012


    Om. Next Paippalada addressed (Mahadeva) 'What is That which came to exist at first'?

    2.    (He replied). Sadyojata. 'What is that O Lord', ? 'Aghora'. What is that, O Lord? 'Vamadeva'. What are those, O Lord? 'Tatpurusha.' What are these, O Lord? 'Isana, the instructor of all the Vidyas.'

    3.    He is the Isana (ruler) of the past and the future and of all the gods.

    4.    All the Secrets, whatever they have with colors, divisions and energies, the Lord Mahesa gave out to him (Paippalada).

    5.    Adoration to Mahadeva, Maharudra.

    6.    O Sakala, hear from me, whatever are the secrets of secrets in the world (a teacher says to his pupil).

    7.    Sadyojata, which bestows all the desired objects, represents Earth, Pusha (the sun), Lakshmi, Brahma, Trivritsvara (sound), Rig Veda, Garhapatya fire, the mantras which have seven notes, yellow color, and Kriyasakti.

    8.    Aghora, which destroys all the multitude of sins, which pacifies evils, and which bestows all prosperities, represents water, the moon, Gauri, Yajurveda, cloud color, Sandrasvara, Dakshinagni, the mantras with fifty syllables, protection and Ichchasakti.

    9.    Vamadeva, which gives the great wisdom, represents Agni, Vidyakala, Samaveda, Svara with eight notes, Dhirasvara (majestic sound), Ahavantya fire, knowledge and dissolution energies, and white color mixed with darkness. He, whose brightness is equal to that of crores of suns, possesses full consciousness and is the leader of the three states (of consciousness). He distributes the fruits of all actions to men, who are in the three states of consciousness, and also bestows on them all the prosperities. He, whose mantra is Eight syllabled one, resides in the center of eight-petalled lotus (of the heart).

    10.    Tatpurusha is he, who possessed the air, the five fires, who is the leader of the mantra energies, and who has the fifty letters and their notes, and Atharvaveda. He is the head of crores of the Ganas (Elements) and whose body is the whole universe. His color is Red-which gives the desired objects. He is the panacea for all kinds of diseases, the cause of the creation, preservation and destruction &c., and the possessor of all the Saktis. He is above the three states of consciousness, the fourth (Turiya), and existence, consciousness and bliss himself, He is worshipped by Brahma, Vishnu and others, and the Supreme Father of all.

    11.    Isana should be known as the Supreme Ruler and the witness of the intelligence. He is the Ether unmanifested, and to be worshipped by the 'Omkarasvara'. He is all the Devas, calm, and above the calmness, and beyond the 'Svara' (notes). He is the presiding deity of the letters 'A' and other Svaras, and whose body is the Ether itself. He is the cause of the five functions (creation &c.) in the great form of the five Brahmans (Sadyojata &c.). He remains (at the time of dissolution) involving the five Brahmans in himself, and also remains after absorbing all the manifestations of his own maya in himself. He shines by his own glory transcending the five Brahmans. He shines in himself in the past, present and future depending on none else.

    12.    All the Devas, do not realize him, bewildered by the maya of Sambhu, the Mahadeva, the Guru of the universe and the Cause of all the causes.

    13.    His form will not stand before any. He is the highest of the highest, the support of the universe, the person, by whom the universe is manifested and in whom it is involved. He is the Supreme Brahman, calm, he is the Supreme abode and I am that Brahman itself.

    14.    One should understand the five Supreme Brahmans, Sadyojata and others; whatever we see and hear all are the five Brahmans. These five are, as it were, the division of one Brahman. Thus understanding the one as five he reaches Isana (the fifth). The learned should absorb all, which are in the form of the five Brahmans, in his self and realize that 'I am they', and he reaches Brahman, becoming immortal. He who knows thus, becomes freed from the bondage; there is no doubt in this.

    15.    Sambhu is in the form of the five-syllabled mantra (Panchakshara). He is the Supreme Brahman. Knowing the Panchakshara as consisting from the letter 'Na' to 'Ya', one should repeat the mantra.

    16.    One should realize the universe as Panchakshara in the nature of the five Brahmans.

    17.    He, who studies this vidya of the five Brahmans with devotion, attaining the state of the five Brahmans, shines himself in five forms.

    18.    Thus Mahadeva, addressing Galava, the great Soul, blessing him and disappeared there.

    19.    By hearing which alone, the unheard things become heard, the unthought, O Sakala, and the unknown is known. Just as by knowing one lump of earth alone, O Gautama, all the Earth is known as the effect (pot &c.) is not separate from the cause (Mother Earth); just as by knowing one jewel alone, all other metals one known; and just as by knowing one nail parer only, all other iron made things are known, as they are not in nature different from their cause, so is the effect (the universe) not separate from its cause (Isvara). The effect becomes always eternal in the form of its cause. The saying as different is indeed false. The cause is only one, and he is not separate (from the effects) nor with both forms (separateness and non-separateness). The idea of separateness is false, as it is impossible to find out the cause of difference. Therefore the cause is only one, the eternal and second less. This second less cause is, surely the Pure Consciousness itself.

    20.    In this city of Brahman (Body) there is, O Sage, a small lotus like house. In the center of it, there is a subtle ether. He is Siva, Sat, Chit, and Ananda. He should be sought after by those desirous of Salvation. As He is residing in the heart as the witness of all, without differences, Siva is called 'Hridaya' (resider in the heart), the liberator from the Samsara.

Thus ends the upanishat.

R. A. Sastri.


    Om. Next Paippalada (the consumer of the fruit of action) addressed the Brahma. 'Amongst Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra, O Lord, who is to be more meditated upon? Kindly explain to us the truth alone.

    2.    To him the Pitamaha replied. O Paippalada, hear this speech.

    3.    The Paramesvara (the Supreme Lord) is to be obtained by him, who has practiced many virtues. I myself, Hari, Indra and others, are born from His body.

    4.    The Devas and others do not know, by ignorance, the great Lord who is the Supreme Isvara, and the father.

    5.    He, who first created the Brahma, and gave out to him all the Vedas, is to be praised, who is the Divine Lord, father of the Devas, and creator of myself and Vishnu.

    6.    He is the Supreme one, who dissolves all the worlds, at the time of dissolution. He alone is the ruler of all.

    7.    He, the Supreme Lord, assuming the terrible form called 'Sarabha' (divine bird), the mighty one killed (was about to kill) Nrisimha, the world destroyer (after drinking the blood of Hiranyaksha, Nrisimha became very troublesome as he could not digest it). The lords of Devas requested him who was taking the life of him (Nrisimha) by his feet, 'Do not, O, mighty one, do not take away the life of Vishnu, the person, in this dead night.'

    8.    The Lord by His sharp nails opened (his body and drank the venomed blood) out of compassion, and the mighty one, clad by his skin, is called 'Virabadra' (the pacifier of heated ones).

    9.    He, the Rudra, alone should be meditated upon in order to accomplish all.

    10.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who was the destroyer of the fifth face of Brahma.

    11.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who by the fire spark coming out of his forehead, reduces all the worlds into ashes, again creates and protects them, thus revealing His own independence.

    12.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who by His left foot killed the Death, (Markandeya's Story) and who drank the terrible poison.

    13.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who bestowed the disc (chakra) on Vishnu, who worshipped him by one of his Eyes on his left foot. (When Vishnu found wanting one lotus flower, he pulled out one of his Eyes, making offering, completed the Sahasranamarchana).

    14.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who, the mighty one, at the sacrifice of Daksha, after conquering the multitude of the Devas, bound Vishnu by a big noose.

    15.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who, as if by play burned the terrible three cities; who has the sun, the moon and the fire as his three eyes; to whom all the Devas have become servants (Pasus) and by this reason who assume the name 'Pasupati' (the Lord of Pasus, the ignorant jivas).

    16.    Thus praising him by many ways, (the Devas) pacified Nilakantha, the great Lord.

    17 - 18.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who, the ancient Lord, killed the terrible and troublesome incarnations of Vishnu, namely, Matsya, Karma, Varaha, Narasimha and Vamana; and who reduced Manmata * into ashes. Thus by many hymns, (the Devas) pacified Nilakantha, the great Lord. [* The God of Love.]

    19.    He, Paramesvara, removes all kinds of sufferings, birth, death &c., caused by the three kinds of afflictions. Thus praised by the hymns, the ancient Lord, the self of all the embodied ones, Sankara, protects all the beings. He be praised, who transcends the mind and the speech, the great Lord, whose lotus like two feet, even now Vishnu is seeking to find out. The Lord showed his grace to Vishnu, who was bent with much devotion.

    20.    Realizing the Bliss of Brahman, from whom speech returns with mind without obtaining him, one never fears at any time.

    21.    He is subtler than the subtlest, and the bigger than the biggest, the Atman is secreted in the cavity of this being. By his grace sees his glory, he who has no desire and who has no sorrow.

    22.    He is meditated upon in the heart, by Vasishtha, Vyasa, Vamadeva, Virinchi and others; the ancient Lord, Mahesa, is praised by Sanatsujatiya, Sanatana and others. He is the truth, eternal, the witness of all, Mahesa, ever blissful, unchanged, formless, who has unlimited energy, and who has no Lord above him, has created by his own avidya, the object.

    23.    The maya bewilders, O observer of food vows, me much and Vishnu. By the meditation on his feet it can be crossed easily, though it is very difficult to cross.

    24.    Vishnu, the origin of all the worlds, with his own manifestations, and along with my manifestations, protects all the worlds. The same become dissolved by time. Therefore (except him) all others are false.

    25.    Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who is the great consumer, the great Lord, the trident holder, the auspicious and Mahesvara.

    26.    The omnipresent one is the great Being. There are many other beings. The eternal one, being the self of beings enjoys all, pervading through all the three worlds.

    27.    The omnipresent one be pleased with me, who worshipped by the four syllabled mantra twice, by the two syllabled one, four syllabled one, and again by the two syllabled mantra.

    28.    The eternal the oblation, the eternal clarified butter, are offered in the eternal; the fire by the eternal; unto the eternal, verily shall he go who in his action meditated wholly upon the eternal.

    29.    (The definition of Sarabha). The Saras are the jivas. They are always shining (Bha) in His body. Hence the (all) consumer Brahman is called Sarabha. O the great sage, the direct giver of Salvation.

    30.    The Devas are bewildered by the influence of His Maya, through the ideas of 'mine' and others.

    31.    One is unable to describe His glory, even a particle of it.

    32.    Brahma is above Para (the world); above him is Vishnu; above him is, indeed, Isa. Equal or superior to him, there is none.

    33.    There is only one Siva, eternal: Except Him all else is false. Therefore, giving up all other worshipful gods, Siva alone is to be meditated upon forever, who is the remover of all the samsaras.

    34.    To Him, adoration, who is the great consumer, the Mahesvara.

    35.    This great Sastra, O Paippaladaa, is not to be given to any indiscriminately; to the Atheist, ungrateful, bad character, evil-minded one, egotistic, sinful, rogue, utterer of falsehood. It is to be given to a good fellow, Devotee, observer of good vows, good conduct, devoted to guru, calm and quiet, good-hearted, and the devotee of Siva. This work of Brahman, can be handed down through him who has the above qualifications. This is to be instructed only to one's own pupils, who do not break down the good vows, O Sage; and not to others. It is to be kept in secret always; O the best of the Brahmanas.

    36.    The twice-born one who studies and hears this Paippalada Sastra, becomes freed from birth and death. He who understands this, attains the state of immortality. He is freed from the dwelling in the womb; becomes purified from the sin of tasting the liquor; from the theft of gold; from Brahmanicide; from the sin of lying down with guru's bed. He gets the virtue of studying all the Vedas, of meditating on all the Devas; he becomes purified from all the heinous crimes; he gets the virtue of taking the pilgrimage to Kasi. He becomes ever beloved of Siva. He attains the equal state of Siva. He does never return, does never return. He becomes Brahman only. Thus says the Lord Brahma. Thus ends the Upanishat. Om.

R. A. Sastri.


[*This is the only Upanishat important to the Brahmins who use the Gopichandana as their caste mark. This also advocates the Brhma Dharana at the end]

    Om. The holy Narada addressed the universal Lord, Vasudeva, with adoration. Instruct me, O Lord, the rules of Urdhva Pundra (a vertical sign of Gopichandana paste on the forehead and other places of the body); and also inform me the material by which it is made of, the mantras which are to be recited when applying it, and the places where it should be applied.

    2.    The Lord Vasudeva replied. The origin of the Gopichandana was from the Vaikuntha regions. It delights me and was made a paste by my devotees, Brahma and others on their body. It is called 'Vishnu-chandana' (Sandal paste of Vishnu). It was applied on my body daily by Gopis and removed. Hence 'Gopichandana.'

    3.    It is the means of attaining Salvation as it was besmeared in my body; it is holy and is in consecrated water of my disc. It has the emblem of my disc on it, with white color.

    4.    Next, one should handle it with adoration, chanting the mantra' "O Gopichandana, the destroyer of sins, O Thou, that hast come forth from the body of Vishnu, and hast emblem of the disc, I adore thee. Give me Salvation. I apply thee on my body." He should fetch water reciting the mantra 'O Ganga, hear this &c;' rub it uttering 'Vishnornukam' &c., and apply it on his body reciting the mantras "Let, therefore, the Devas protect me," and by Vishnu Gayatri (Narayanaya Vidmahe &c); or uttering the names 'Kesava' &c., (the twelve names of Vishnu from Kesava to Damodara).

    5.    The Brahmachari and Vanaprastha should apply the paste on the forehead, breast, neck and forearms, uttering either the Vaishnava Gayatri, or Krishna and other names.

    6.    The Grihastha (house-holder) should consecrate it repeating thrice the verse with meditation: "O bearer of the conch-shell, disc and club in hands, O the Dweller in the Dvaraka, Achuta, Govinda, O lotus-like eyed one, protect me, who has taken refuge in thee;" and apply it in the twelve places, crown of the head &c., by the second finger (ring-finger) chanting the Vaishnava Gayatri or Kesava and other names.

    7.    Brahmachari and the householder should apply it on the forehead, breast, neck and forearms uttering either the Vaishnava Gayatri, or Krishna and other names.

    8.    The Sanyasin should apply it by the fore-finger on the crown, forehead, and breast, uttering the Pranava alone.

    9.    The three vertical lines* [* Some who apply the Gopichandana on the forehead vertically without the three lines, it seems, have no Vedic sanction.] represent the three embodied ones Brahma &c., the three Vyahritis (Bhu &c,) the three Vedic metres, the three sacred fires, the three luminaries (the Sun &c), the three times, the three states of consciousness, the three Atmans, and the letters A, U, and M. Thus the Urdhva Pundra is of Pranava. This is Atman. It is Sat (being) and Om.

    10.    All these manifestations are one.

    11.    As it (symbolizes the) uplifting to the higher regions the aspirants of Om, one, therefore, should apply the Urdhva Pundra.

    12.    The Paramahamsa can apply a single line of Urdhva Pundra on his forehead, reciting Pranava.

    13.    The yogi attains the state of my equally (Sayujya), realizing his Self in it which reveals the Truth like a lamp.

    14.    Or, one may realize it (the Truth) in the center of the paste on the breast, or in the lotus-like heart, as it is said: "In the center of it (heart) there is a fine flame of light which burns upwards, which is as bright as the flash of lightening in the middle of the blue cloud. This Supreme Self is as fine as the ear of the wild rice-grains (nivara)." Therefore one should realize the Self which is in the lotus-like heart as remaining in the Pundra.

    15.    Thus one should gradually realize me the Supreme Hari, who is the one's own Self. He, who meditates on me, the imperishable Hari, with undivided attention, and also on his own Self as residing in his lotus-like heart, attains Salvation. There is no doubt in this. He also realizes by devotion my nature which is second less, all pervading, without beginning, middle and end, self-shining, and which is existence, consciousness and bliss.

    16.    The only one Vishnu dwells uninterruptedly in all moveable and immovable things. I, as the Self, dwell in all beings. Like the oil on the oil-seed, the fire in the firewood, the cream in the milk, and like the odor in the flowers, I am dwelling in all beings.

    17.    One reaches the goal by pasting the Gopichandan on his crown, between the eye-brows, and on the breast, and there meditating on Hari, the Sun of consciousness.

    18.    The Sanyasin, who uplifts his senses, who draws his vital current upwards, has Urdhva Pundra caste mark on his body and who practices the centripetal meditation, reaches the upper regions as he possesses the four upper-tending practices. Thus one obtains for himself the decisive knowledge by my devotion. One should, therefore, possess exclusive devotion having the paste Gopichandana on his body.

    19.    It is well ordained that all the Vaidika Brahmins should have the Urdhva Pundra prepared by Gopichandan and water.

    20.    If one, desirous of Salvation, does not procure the Gopichandana, should have the substitute from the earth of the root of the Tulasi plant, in order to obtain the direct perception of the Self.* [* This indicates the Gopichandana rule does not belong to the niyama vidhi, (necessary injunction), like that of Bhasma but it belongs to the optional one.]


    21.    One should besmear himself with the body ashes, procured from the sacred fire of the Atiratra Sacrifices, reciting the mantras "Agner bhasitam," (the holy ashes are from the fire), "I danu* Vishnu," "Trini Pada" (the three steps). Vishnu Gayatri, and Pranava. [* In the Srauta Prayoga, we find this mantra uttered with sprinkling the holy ashes, when the dog pollutes the Sacrificial ground by entering it.]

    22.    By this method one should have the Gopichandana on his body (when the Sruti authoritatively pronounces thus many do not use Bhasma above Gopichandan paste and violate the injunction).

    23.    He, who studies this, becomes free from all the sins. He never gets the impure thought (concerning Bhasma).

    24.    He gets the virtue of bathing in all the holy waters. He obtains the result of performing all the Vedic Sacrifices. He is honored by all the gods.

    25.    He gets an uninterrupted devotion in me, the Lord Narayana. He attains the state of Equality of Vishnu, having obtained the pure knowledge.

    26.    He does never come back to this world, does never come back. Thus Says the Lord Vasudeva.

    27.    He who studies this also attains the same. Thus Om, Truth. Thus ends the upansihat.

R. A. Sastri.



    Om. Next Bhusunda addressed Kalagni Rudra thus: 'How is the origin of the Rudrakshas, and what is the effect wearing them'?

    2.    Him answered the Lord Kalagni Rudra.

    3.    When, for the sake of destroying the Tripura (the three cities), I checked my Eyes; from them fell drops of water in the ground and became the Rudrakshas for the benefit of all.

    4.    Mere uttering their name produces the effect of the gift of ten cows. The seeing and handling of them produces twice the effect of the above. Beyond this, I am unable to describe more.

    5.    There are the following verses on this (Question). Wherefrom comes it? What is its name? How is it to be worn by men? How many faces does it contain? What are the mantras to be chanted when wearing it?

    6.    (Answer) I closed my eyes for the period of a thousand divine years. From my closed eyes drops of water fell down on the earth. Then the Eye-drops have become the great Rudraksha trees of the vegetable kingdom for the sake of blessing the devotees.

    7.    The wearing of it does remove the sin of the devotees committed during the day and the night. Seeing it produces one lac of virtues, and handling it, one crore. The wearing of it produces in man one hundred crores of virtues, the wearing and making japa of it produce in man one hundred millions of virtues.

    8.    It is said that Rudraksha is the best which is as big in size as Dhatri fruit
(நெல்லிக்காய்). The wise declare it to be a secondary one which has the size of a Badari fruit
(இலந்தைப்பழம்). The last one is that which has the size of a Bengal gram. Thus is the order given out by me.

    9.    By the command of Siva the trees have sprung up from the earth in four classes, namely, Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sudra; and each brings benefit to its own order.

    10.    The white one is called Brahmana bead, the red one, Kshatriya; yellowish, Vaisya; and black one is said to be Sudra. The Brahmanas should wear the white ones, the Kshatriya, the red, the Vaisya the yellowish, and the Sudras the black ones.

    11.    The good bead is that which is well-shaped, sappy sound, well-sized and with thorns. One should reject the six kinds of the same, namely those that are made holes by worms, wounded, broken, without thorns, diseased and not well-shaped.

    12.    The best Rudraksha is that which has a natural hole. That bead is a secondary one which has a hole made by the effort of man.

    13.    The wise should wear in his body and limbs a garland of beads that are equally shaped, sappy, sound, pleasing, and big is size, tied in a silk thread.

    14.    That bead is known to be the best which produces a golden line when tested in a rubbing stone; and this the worshippers of Siva should wear.

    15.    One should wear a single Rudraksha in the tuft of his hair, three hundred in the head. He should make a garland of thirty-six for his neck, of sixteen for each arm, and of twelve for each wrist. He should wear five hundred in his shoulders. One should prepare a garland of one hundred and eight in the form of the sacred thread (yajnopavita).

    16.    One should suspend from his shoulders a garland of beads consisting of two or three, five or seven rounds. He may wear the same in the head, in and around the ears, neck, arms, wrists, and across the shoulders like the sacred thread. He should wear it specially in the waist.

    17.    One should wear always the Rudraksha whether he sleeps or eats.

    18.    The wearing of three hundred is said to be the lowest; of five hundred ordinary, and of one thousand the best. Knowing the difference one should wear it.

    19.    He should wear it in the crown, chanting the mantra 'Isana': in the shoulders Tatpurusha'; in the neck and heart 'Aghora'. The wise should recite the mantra 'Aghora Bija', while wearing it on their wrists. One should wear a garland of fifty in the waist chanting the mantra 'Vyomavyapi.' He should wear, in all the places of sense-organs, a garland of five or seven beads, chanting the Panchabrahman' (Sadyojata & c.,) and its supplementary mantra.

    20.    Next Bhusunda addressed the Lord Kalagni Rudra. Tell me the different kinds of Rudrakshas, their nature, the result of wearing them, and also their different faces; and those that drive out evils and these that give the desired objects.

    21.    He answered: In this these are the slokas:-

    22.    The One-faced Rudraksha represents the Supreme Reality. Wearing it, one, with completely controlled senses merges in the Supreme Reality.

    23.    The Two-faced one, O the best of sages, represents Ardhnarisvara (the Lord with half-male and half-female form). By wearing this Ardhnarisvara always becomes pleased with him.

    24.    The Three-faced one represents the three sacred fires. The fire god becomes always pleased with him who wears this.

    25.    The Four-faced Rudraksha represents the four-faced Deity (Brahma). The four-faced god becomes ever pleased with him who wears this.

    26.    The Five-faced Rudraksha represents the five Brahmans (Sadyojata to Isana). The five-faced Brahman removes him from the sin of killing the human beings.

    27.    The Six-faced Rudraksha has Kartikeya (Subrahmanya) as its presiding Deity. The wearing of it brings forth a great wealth and a very good health. The wise should wear it to obtain brightness of the intellect. The great men say it has also Vinayaka as its presiding Deity.

    28.    The Seven-faced Rudraksha has the Sapta matris as its presiding deities. The wearing of it brings forth a great wealth and a very good health; and vouchsafes the wearer the personal purity and attainment of clearness of the mind.

    29.    The Eight-faced Rudraksha has the Ashtamatris as its presiding deities. It pleases the Eight Vasus and the goddess Ganga. The wearing of it will please the above gods, who are true to their words.

    30.    The Nine-faced Rudraksha has the nine Saktis as its presiding deities. The mere wearing of it pleases the nine Saktis.

    31.    The Ten-faced Rudraksha has Yama as its presiding Deity. A look at it will create effect lessness of his sins. There is no doubt in this.

    32.    The Eleven-faced Rudraksha has the Eleven Rudras as its presiding Deities. The great men say, the deities increase the prosperity of him who wears it always.

    33.    The Twelve-faced Rudraksha represents the great Vishnu and also the twelve Adityas. The wearer of it assumes the deity's form.

    34.    The Thirteen-faced Rudraksha brings forth the desired objects and agreeable perfection. The mere wearing of it pleases Kamadeva.

    35.    The Fourteen-faced Rudraksha has its origin from the eyes of Rudra. It removes all the diseases. The wearer will have always a very good health.

    36.    He should avoid the prohibited food, namely, liquor, flesh, onion, white onion Suguru, Sleshmataka, and the village boar.

    37.    He becomes freed from all the sins, if he wears the Rudraksha on the days of Eclipse, Solstices, the beginning of each of the Solar month and of six months of new moon and full moon and on the complete days.

    38.    It is said the root of the Rudraksha tree is Brahma, the fibre of it is Vishnu, and the top Rudra, and the fruits are all the Devas.

    39.    Next Santkuamra addressed the Lord Kalagnirudra; 'Expound to me O Lord, the rules of wearing the Rudrakshas. On that occasion Nidagha, Jadabharata, Dattatreya, Katyayana, Bharadvaja, Kapila, Vasishtha, Pippalada and others, approaching Kalagnirudra addressed him.

    40.    Next Kalagnirudra asked them, 'what is the object of your arrival here'?

    41.    They replied; 'We desire to hear the rules of wearing the Rudrakshas.'

    42.    Next Kalagnirudra said: 'from the Eyes of Rudra the Rudrakshas have come forth. Thus is known in the world. Now, Sadasiva at the time of involution, after finishing the function of destruction, he closes his eye of destruction. From that Eye have come forth the Rudrakshas. It is therefore named Rudraksha by its derivation. Thus replied Kalagnirudra.

    43.    The mere utterance of the name of 'Rudraksha' rings forth to the repeater the virtue of the gift of ten cows. The Rudraksha has as much virtue as that of the bright Bhasma.

    44.    By handling Rudraksha and by mere wearing of it one acquires the benefit of the gift of two thousand cows. The wearing in the ears will produce the effect of the gift of eleven-thousand cows and the wearer attains the state of Eleven Rudras. The wearing in the head brings forth the result of the gift of one crore of cows. Of all the places the result of wearing in the ears is beyond the speech to describe. Thus replied the Lord.

    45.    He who studies daily this Rudra Jabala Upanishat, whether he be young or youthful, he becomes great. He becomes the guru and imparter of all the mantras.

    46.    One should perform Homa in the Sacred fire chanting this Upanishat only and perform worship reciting this only.

    47.    One should tie a single Rudraksha called Mrityutaraka (crosser of death), which drives out evil spirits, received from a Guru, in the neck, or in the right arm, or in the tuft of his hair.* [* Here is the Vedic injunction for wearing a single Rudraksha received from a teacher, in the neck.]

    48.    Even the gift of the Earth surrounded with seven continents is not enough to pay spiritual fee to that Guru. Therefore with earnestness he should give him a cow of any quality. This is the spiritual fee.

    49.    A Brahmana who recites this Upanishat in the evening destroys the sin committed during the day. Recitation in the noon destroys the sin committed in six births. The study in morning and evening removes the sin accumulated during many a birth; also brings forth the result of repeating the Gayatri mantra Six thousand lacs. He becomes pure from the sin of Brahmanicide, of tasting liquor, theft of gold, intercourse with his guru's wife, and from the sin of him who associates with the above.

    50.    He gets the benefit of bathing in all the holy waters. He becomes freed from the sin of talking with the fallen men. He becomes the Sanctifier of one hundred thousand lines, He attains the equal state (Sayujya) of Siva. He does never return to this world, he never returns. Om, Truth! Thus says the Upanishat.

R. A. Sastri.

Friday, March 30, 2012


    Bowing down by the head to the feet of Vyasa, Suka addressed him thus:

    2.    Who is the Deity (proclaimed) in the Vedas? In whom all the Devas are established on all sides? By worshipping whom all the gods are ever pleased?

    3.    Having heard the words of him, the father replied Suka thus:

    4.    Rudra is the Atman of all the Devas, and all the Devas are of Siva.

    5.    On the right side of Rudra are the Sun, Brahma and the three sacred fires. On his left side are the three, viz: Uma Devi, Vishnu and Chandra (the moon).

    6.    Uma is indeed Vishnu, and Vishnu is Chandra.

    7.    They, who adore Govinda are adoring Sankara. They who worship Hari with devotion, are worshipping the Bull-flagged One (Siva).

    8.    They who hate the peculiar eyed One (Virupaksha) are hating Janardana. They who do not understand Rudra, are not realizing Kesava.

    9.    From Rudra proceeds the seed and Vishnu receives it. Rudra is indeed Brahma. Brahma is the sacred fire. Brahma and Vishnu are of Rudra. The Universe is of the fire and the moon. All the male emblem is Siva. The female emblem is the Lady Uma. All the created beings – moveable and immoveable – are of Uma and Rudra. All the manifested ones are of Uma. The unmanifested one is Mahesvara. The union of Uma and Sankara is called Vishnu; one, thus realizing him, should adore him with devotion.

    10.    Atman, Antaratman (inner soul) and Paramatman, knowing the three kinds of Atman, one should take refuge in Paramatman. The eternal Vishnu is the Atman of all beings. Brahma is the Antaratman. Parmatman is Mahesvara.

    11.    To the great tree of the three worlds, with its braches down in the earth, the top is Vishnu, the middle is Brahma and the root is Mahesvara. For the benefit (of the world) only one Rudra-form is divided into three.

    12.    Dharma is Rudra; the world is Vishnu; all the knowledge is Brahma.

    13.    The wise man who invokes Him by the word, O Rudra, Rudra, Rudra, is freed from all the sins as he invokes the all-pervading Lord.

    14.    Rudra is man. Uma is woman. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is Brahma. Uma is Lakshmi. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is the Sun. Uma is Chehuya (his wife). Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is Chandra. Uma is Tara. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is the day. Uma is the night. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is the sacrifice. Uma is the altar. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is the sacred fire. Uma is Svaha. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is the Vedas. Uma is the Sastras. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is the tree. Uma is the creepers. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is odor. Uma is flower. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is the meaning. Uma is the word. Adoration is to Him and to Her. Rudra is Linga. Uma is the seat. Adoration is to Him and to Her. One should adore Rudra, who is the Atman of all the Devas, in each and everything. Thus I adore Isa and Parvati by the above mantras. Wherever one may be, he should repeat this couple mantra (i.e., Rudra and Uma). The Brahmin killer is freed from all his sins by repeating this in the water.

    15.    The Supreme and Eternal Brahman is the support of all, who is free from the pairs opposite, who is in nature Sat, Chit and Ananda and who is transcending the mind and speech. When he is well-known, all these things are, O Suka, known. As everything has its soul in Him, nothing does exist at any time without Him.

    16.    There are two kinds of Vidyas (Knowledge's) which are to be known as para and apara (superior and inferior). Of them the apara is Rig Veda, Yajus, Sama and Atharva vedas, Siksha, O best among the sages, Kalpa, Vyakarana, nirukta, Chchandas, Jyothisha, and also the knowledge concerning the worldly matter.

    17.    Next the para-vidya: By which, the wise realize Atman in himself, who is the supreme imperishable one, who is not to be seen, or grasped or named, who is ever free from any form, eye, ear, hand and foot, - who is eternal, all pervading, omnipresent, very subtle, unchangeable and who is the cause of all beings.

    18.    From Him who is omniscient and all knower and whose param is Knowledge itself, proceeds the multitude of worlds, not partaking of his own nature. It appears as true as the snake in the rope.

    19.    That It alone is true and knowing It, one is freed from the bondage. By Knowledge alone is effected the destruction of Samsara (the trans migratory life), and not surely by action (Karma).

    20.    One should approach one's own Guru (Dakshinamurti) according to the rules, who is revealed in the Vedas and who never swerves from Brahman nature.* [* Some translate this as 'to approach a Brahman who is his own guru, well versed in the Vedas,' meaning his family teacher, though he is ill-qualified to the task.]

    21.    The Guru initiates him into Para-vidya which reveals the nature of Atman and Brahman. The man who realizes the imperishable one as residing in the heart, reaches the ancient Siva, having broken through the knot of ignorance. It is eternal, truth, and it is to be realized by those who desire for liberation.

    22.    The bow is Om; arrow is Atman, Brahman is said to be aimed at. The shot is to be aimed at carefully, becoming absorbed in itself (for the time being). The aim itself is omnipresent; and the arrow also has its face everywhere. The aimer is also omnipresent. The aimed at is Siva. There is no doubt in this.

    23.    In Him do not shine the sun, moon nor fire, nor all the Devas; nor the wind blows. The ever pure Deity does shine in Himself transcending all the qualities.

    24.    There are two birds residing together in this body called Jiva and Isvara; of them Jiva eats the fruits of action and Mahesvara does not. He remains there shining Himself, as a mere witness without tasting the fruit of it.

    25.    The difference between them is attributed by Maya. Like the difference …. the space of the pot and room, is the difference attributed between Siva and Jiva. In reality Siva is chit (consciousness itself) and Jiva also is always chit. The chit does not differ in its nature. If it does so, it will lose the state of its own nature. The chit will not differ in itself as it does not belong to the nature of inert matter (Jada). If it does so, then the difference will be of jada. The chit always is one. Thus the oneness of the chit is established by reasoning and by authorities (Pramanas). By realizing the oneness of the chit, one does not underdo misery nor bewilderment.

    26.    He reaches Siva, Who is without duality and who is the Supreme bliss itself.

    27.    By realizing Him, who is the support of all the worlds, Who is the sat and chit itself, 'I am He', the sage becomes freed from Samsara.

    28.    They who are devoid of sins, see in their own body, the self-shining one, which is the witness of all; and not others who are veiled by Maya.

    29.    The great yogin who has the above knowledge never goes to anywhere as he has become omnipresent. Just as the omnipresent either does not go to anywhere, so is the knower of his Atman.

    30.    The sage who realizes the Supreme Brahman becomes Brahman itself, having ever become Sat, Chit and Ananda.

Thus the Upanishat ends.

R. A. Sastri.




Om*. [*This is 28th in order of 108 Upanishats. Of these (1) Kaivalya, (2) Svetasvatara, (3) Atharvasiras, (4) Atharvasikha and (5) Kalagnirudra, are called Pancharudropanishats. It is ordained that every devotee of Isvara should recite them daily before breakfast.]

    Next (comes) the Kalagnirudropanishat, for which the Seer (Rishi) is Samvertaka Agni. The metre is Anushtup. The presiding Deity is Sri Kalagnirudra. This (Upanishat) is to be used while besmearing the body with Holy ashes in three lines for the sake of propitiating the Lord Rudra.

    2.    Om. Next Sanatkuamra addressed Lord Kalagni-rudra thus: Reveal to me, O Lord, the canons of Tripundra and its real nature. What is the material it is made of? What are the places where it is to be applied? What are its dimensions? How many lines is it to consist of? What are the mantras? What is its efficacy? Which is the presiding Deity? Who is the practitioner? and what is its result?

    3.    To him answered Lord Kalagnirudra. The material it is made of is ashes produced by fire. Chant the Pancha Brahma mantra (Sadyojata to Isana Sarvavidyanam) while taking them in the hand. Invoke the following mantras on them, viz., Agni is Bhasma (holy ashes), Vayu is Bhasma, Vyoma is Bhasma, Jala (water god) is Bhasma and Sththula (earth) is Bhasma. Lift them up reciting the mantra "manastoka." (Do not molest our children etc., vide Rudradhyaya). Mix them up with water reciting the mantra "Triyayusham" (Triyayusham to Tanmesta Triyayusham). And apply them on the scalp of the head, forehead, breast and on the shoulders, chanting the mantras "Triyayusha etc." "Trayambaka", and "Trisakti", in three lines drawn across.

    4.    This ritual (vrata) called (Sambhava) is proclaimed in the Vedas by the Seers of the same. Therefore one desirous of liberation should practice this to avoid rebirth.

    5.    Next Sanatkuamra asked for the dimensions of Tripundra application.

    6.    (He replied). The three lines should occupy the whole forehead, from the eyes to the scalp of the head including also the portion between the eyebrows.

    7.    It's first line represents the Garhapatya fire, akara (in Om mantra) Rajas, Bhuloka (earth), Atman, Kriyasakti, RigVeda, the morning yaga, and the Deity Mahesvara.

    8.    The second line represents Dakshinagni, Ukara, Satva, Antariksha (the middle space), inner self, Ichchasakti, Yajur Veda, mid-day yaga, and the Deity Sadasiva.

    9.    The third line represents Ahavaniya fire, Makara, Tamas, Dyuloka (heaven) the Supreme Self, Jnanasakti, Samaveda, the third yaga, and the Deity Mahadeva.

    10.    Thus the learned man who makes the Tripundra out of the holy ashes whether he be a bachelor, house-holder, vanaprasththa, or sanyasin, will be purified from the sin of the heinous crimes and as well as from the lighter ones (mahapataka and upapataka).

    11.    He receives the efficacy of having bathed in all the holy waters.

    12.    He has the merit attainable by the result of studying all the Vedas.

    13.    He comes to Know all the Devas.

    14.    He achieves the fruit of the constant recitation of all the Rudras.

    15.    He enjoys all the worldly happiness; after his death he reaches the Sayujya of Siva. He is not reborn, he is not reborn. So says Lord Kalagni Rudra.

    16.    He who studies this (Upanishat) attains this same position.

    17.    Om. Truth (Satyam). Thus ends the Upansihat.

R. A. Sastri.


Thursday, March 29, 2012


[*This is 104th in order of 108 Upanishats.]

    1.    Om Next, Pippalada addressed the holy Jabal: "O Lord instruct me in the secret of the Supreme Reality. What is the reality? Who is Jiva? Who is Pasu? Who is the Lord? What are the means to attain Salvation?"

    2.    He replied to him: "Well-questioned. I shall instruct thee in all that I know."

    3.    Again he asked him, "Wherefrom learnt thou?" "From Shanmukha".

    4.    Again he asked him, "wherefrom learnt he?" "From Isana".

    5.    Again he asked, "how did he get it?" He replied: "By meditating on it."

    6.    Again he addressed him: "Instruct me, out of compassion, O Lord, in all the secrets."

    7.    Thus questioned, he instructed him in all.

    8.    Pasupati is the only Reality.

    9.    The Jiva, who entered into Ahamkara (the vehicle of Egoism) and transmigration is Pasu.

    10.    The Lord is Pasupati, who is Omniscient, possessed of five functions (creation &c.,) and the master of all.

    11.    Who are the Pasus?

    12.    He answered him, "The Jivas are said to be the Pasus; and the Lord of them is Pasupati."

    13.    Again he addressed him, "Why are the Jivas called Pasus and their Lord, Pasupati?"

    14.    He replied: "The Jivas like cows and the other beasts are fed on grass, are devoid of discrimination, are led by others, are engaged in the works of agriculture, undergo misery and are bound by their masters; as their master is to them, so is the Lord, the Omniscient Pasupati".

    15.    By what means is his knowledge derived?

    16.    He, again, replied to him: "only by besmearing himself with the holy ashes".

    17.    How should it be applied and where?

    18.    Again he answered him: "Handle the Bhasma (holy ashes) reciting the Panchabrahma mantra (the five mantras are Sadyojatam – to Sadasivam), he should consecrate it by the mantra, 'Agni is Bhasma &c.' Take it up in hand with the mantra 'manastoka etc.,' he should next mix it with water reciting the mantra 'Trayayusham' and apply it in three lines, in the head, forehead, breast and shoulders pronouncing the mantras 'Trayayusha' and 'Tryambaka.'

    19.    This 'Sambhavavam' is declared in all the Vedas by the promulgators of the same.

    20.    One, desirous of salvation, should observe this to avoid re-birth.

    21.    Next, Sanat-Kumara asked the dimension of the three lines when applied.

    22.    (He answered him) The three lines are to occupy the whole forehead, above the eyes and between the two eye-brows.

    23.    The first line represents the Garhapatya fire, the letter A, Rajas, the Earth, one's own Self, Kriyasakti, Rig-Veda, the morning sacrifice, and has the Lord Prajapati as its presiding Deity.

    24.    The second line represents the Dakshinagni, the letter U, Satva, the middle space, the inner self, Ichchasakti, YajurVeda, the midday sacrifice, and has the Lord Vishnu as its presiding Deity.

    25.    The third line represents the Ahavaniya fire, the letter M, Tamas, Heaven, the Supreme Self, Jnanasakti, SamaVeda, the evening sacrifice, and has Mahadeva as its presiding Deity.

    26.    Thus the learned one who draws the three lines by Bhasma, whether he be a Brahmacharin, or a householder, hermit or ascetic, is freed from the deadly sins and also the minor ones. He reaps the result of studying all the Vedas. He realizes the effect of meditating on all the Devas. He attains the virtue of bathing in all the holy waters. He gets the benefit of reciting all the Rudra mantras. He never comes back, (into rebirth) never comes back. Om, Truth. Thus ends the Upanishat.

R. A. Sastri.





    This (universe) was (before creation) indeed waters, waters only (i.e., rudimental elements).

    2.    The Prajapati alone was reclining on the lotus leaf. In his mind the desire arose thus: 'Let me create this.' Therefore whatever one thinks in his mind, he gives it out by speech and puts it into action. In this there is a saying: "Before the creation of this the desire was. From the mind the vital seed proceeded, at first, which, the Sages saw by their intellect in meditation, as the bondage of the being in the non-being (asat)." He who understands this obtains all his wishes.

    3.    He (Prajapati) made penance. Having made the penance, He created all this.

    4.    Next the well-known Bhusunda (a Rishi) approached the above (the creator) Kalagni-Rudra (Rudra in his aspect as the destructive fire element). Having approached, addressed Him, 'Impart to me, O Lord, the greatness of the holy ashes.' He replied him, 'Yes, but, O Bhusunda, what sort of instruction you require.'

    5.    He requested him to impart the greatness of the holy ashes and the holy beads.

    6.    (The Lord says). It was already given out in the ancient time by Pippalada (a Rishi), along with the result. What shall I say above that?

    7.    Please teach me the Sruti called 'Brihat Jabala,' which leads the receiver to Salvation.

    8.    (The Lord says). Om. Alright, from the Sadyojata face (of the Lord) the earth came to exist, from it (the Kala) called Nivritti (retirement from the worldly enjoyments); from it, the cow names Nanda with brown (Kapila) color. By its dung the Vibhuti came to exist.

    9.    From the Vamadeva face came out water; from it, the Pratishtha (Kala, which creates a taste to know of the Lord); from it, the cow called Bhadra, with dark color. By its dung the Bhasita came to exist.

    10.    From the Aghora face has come out the fire; from it Vidya (Kala, which gives the discriminative knowledge); from it, the cow called Surabhi with red color. From its dung the Bhasma came to exist.

    11.    From the Tatpurusha face, Vayu (air) came to exist; from it, Santi (the Kala that removes all the impurities of maya); from it, the cow called Susila, with white color. From its dung the Kshara is produced.

    12.    From the Isana face has come out the ether (Akasa); from it, Santyatita (the Kala, which reveals the second less Atman – vide Sutasamhita commentary on the verse IV. 14-26 – form it, the cow named Sumana, with various colors. From its dung the Raksha came to exist.

    13.    The holy ashes has thus five names called Vibhuti, Bhasitam, Bhasma, Ksharam, and Raksha.

    14.    The derivation of the five names is as follows: Vibhuti endows one immediately (Vi), with prosperity (Bhuti). Bhasitam, enlightens (Bhasana). Bhasma consumes (Bhakshana) all the Sins. Kshara drives out hindrances. Raksha protects (Raksha) one from the fear of elementals (Bhutas), departed ones (Pretas), devils (Pisachas), Brahmarakshasas, possessions (apasmara) and of the trans migratory life.

Thus ends the first Brahmana.


Next Bhusunda asked Kalagni Rudra to explain the rules of the bathing by Bhasma which is in the form of Agni and Soma.

2.    He replied. Just as the one Agni entering the world, has become many according to the vehicles, so the only one Bhasma, having become the inner soul of all beings, manifests itself accordingly through its vehicles and outside.

3.    The universe consisting of Agni and Soma, is named as 'Agni.' The fearful form of Rudra belongs to Agni. The form which enriches the energy is of Soma who possesses chiefly the ambrosia energy (amrita Sakti). That which is called as amrita, is the Pratishtha (Kala the water) and Vidya (Kala in the fire); also the same is in all the gross and subtle substances as sapidity and light.

4.    The form of the light is of two kinds, one is in the nature of the sun and the other is of the fire. The light is in the nature of electricity and other things; and the sapidity (Rasa) is of the sweetness and other tastes. By the combination only of the light and sapidity are formed this movable and immovable one. From Agni comes out amrita (water) and by amrita the fire is kindled. Hence the universe is made of Agni and Soma depending on each other for its existence.

5.    Soma is whose energy tends upwards. Agni is whose energy tends downwards. The whole universe is combined by the forces of these two. The energy of Agni goes upwards when of Soma predominates in it. The energy of Soma goes downwards when that of Agni predominates. On account of this, the Kalagni (the destructive fire element) goes upwards burning its own regions by its forces, and the Sakti (Soma) going down wets the spheres by its drops. This Kalagni goes upwards supported by the adhara sakti; So also goes down Soma supported by the Sakti of Siva. Siva is above and Sakti is below; Sakti is above and Siva is below. There is not a single thing here which is not pervaded through Siva and Sakti.

6.    Frequently the world is consumed by the fire and reduced into ashes. This they (Sages) call the essence (virya) of Agni and this they name 'Bhasma' with effort. He, who knowing the origin of the Bhasma besmears it while repeating the mantras 'Agni is Bhasma &c.' burns up all his sins.

7.    Bhasma is the essence of Agni; again it is moistened by Soma (water). He becomes fit (to besmear it) who does not acquire it from outside of himself. He is removed from that position who acquires it from outside namely from fire and made it wet by Soma drops. Therefore to conquer death this bathing by ambrosia is intended for the wise. When the realization of the ambrosia nature of Siva and Sakti (Agni and Soma) is experienced by them, how Death dare at them?

8.    He who knows this holy instruction in detail, which is difficult to understand, and is also secret, having tested by Agni and Soma, never takes rebirth.

9.    He, who burns his body by the Siva Agni and washes it by the drops of Sakti Soma, by the Yoga method, becomes fit to attain immortality; he becomes fit to attain immortality, (repetition indicates the end of the Chapter).

Thus ends the second Brahmana.


    Next Bhusunda addressed Kalagni Rudra to instruct him how to prepare Vibhuti.

2.    He replied. One should acquire a good cow-dung avoiding that of the cows, which are hideous, terrible, very strong, dirty, not branded by the marks of Siva and other deities, thin, calf less, cruel, which does not give milk and is old, which does not digest grass, which eats hairs, rags and bones, which in on heat, newly calfed and which is afflicted by diseases.

3.    The cow-dung should be taken before it touches the ground; or it can be accepted, if it is found in a pure place. Next it should be mixed with the cow's urine. In acquiring the cow-dung it is better to have it from brown or white cows. If they are not available, it can be taken from any cow which has no defects as mentioned before.

4.    The Bhasma is the best, which has been prepared by the brown (Kapila) cow's dung and urine; it is secondary which has been prepared by other cow's dung. Any Bhasma cannot be accepted except that which has been prepared by purificatory ceremonies.

5.    There are the following verses: Of all the Saktis the Vidya Sakti is called the Sakti. The Vidya is depending on the three Gunas, and on them only. The cow is the three gunas. The holy cow-dung is the Vidya. The urine is upanishat. Thus one should understand the Bhasma. The calf is the Smritis (Dharma Sastras). Thus is the nature of the cow-dung.

6.    One should worship the cow, repeating the mantra 'Agava.' Next feed it by the consecrated water, chanting 'Guvo Bhago Gavah.' One should fast with a vow on the fourteenth day of bright or dark fortnight. Next day getting up early morning he should bath in the water and purify himself with calmness. He should proceed to the cow-pen, having worn a white cloth. Next he should wake up the cow with effort and receive the urine, chanting the Gayatri, in a golden, silver, copper, or in an earthen cup, or in a lotus and Palasa leaf, or a cow's horn. Thus he should take the urine. Next the house-holder receive the cow dung before allowing it to fall in the ground, chanting the mantra 'Gandhadvaram &c.' in one of the above mentioned cups.

7.    The learned one should clean it, repeating the mantra 'Srir me bhajutu' and remove the chaff, if any, chanting 'Alakshmir me &c.' Pour the urine in the dung repeating the mantra. 'Santva Sinchami.' Next he should prepare fourteen balls repeating the mantra 'Panchanam'; and dry them by the sun's rays, and deposit them in one of the above mentioned vessels.

8.    Next one should kindle the fire according to the rules laid down in his own Grihya Sutras and worship it; then put the balls in it while chanting the mantras 'Om', 'Panchakshara with Om,' and Vyavritta Sukta ending with Svaha.

9.    Next he should give oblations in the fire to propitiate the presiding deities of the balls, and make Vyahritihoma (Bhuh, Bhuvah, and Suvah) between the two places called Aghara and Ujyabhaga. Then he should do Homa by the twenty-three mantras beginning with 'nidhavapataye'; by Panchabr homa mantras (Sadyojatam &c.,) and lastly by the 'Hiranyabhahuve.' Thus all the homas should be performed by the mantras which end with dative cases. Again the mantras 'Ritam Satyam,' 'Kadrudraya' 'Yasya Vai kankuti' and the three Anajnata mantras, are to be chanted by the learned one. Then the Homa by Vyahritis; next Svishtakrit. Keeping aside the remaining Havis and taking the cup which was kept full of water, he should consecrate it by the mantra 'Purnamasi' and sprinkle it in his head chanting 'Brahmaneshu amritam' and on all sides repeating 'Prachyam &c.' Then he should give fee to the Brahma priest.

10.    Next he should bring the corn chaff to cover the fire. He should cover the fire by the chaff repeating the mantra 'I bring thee (i.e., prepare the holy ashes) in order to celebrate the ceremonies of Devas and others. I cover thee, O omniscient, by the corn chaff.' He should be supplying the chaff for three days in order to keep the fire continued. Next feeding the Brahmanas he should take his food silently.

11.    If one requires more quantity of Bhasma, he should get more cow dung in a day or in three days.

12.    Third or on the fourth day cleansing his teeth, as white as possible and bathing in the early morning, he should put on white clothes, white sacred thread, and adorn himself with white flower and sandal paste and with white Bhasma; then should remove the burned chaff chanting 'Om Tat Brahma' and worship it with the sixteen kinds of worships beginning with Avahana and by Vyahriti mantras. Next putting out the fire, remove the Bhasma, repeating the mantra 'Agner Bhasmasi' and powder it chanting the mantra 'Agniriti Bhasma &c.' He should mix it with the perfumed water, or with the urine of the brown cow; and prepare very fine powders from the lovely red powder (Kunkuma), Kasmira, Ustra, chandana, and the three Agarus and mix them with the Bhasma chanting 'Om.' The learned should prepare it in the shape of big cakes, uttering the mantra 'Anoraniyan &c.' Thus, the learned in mantras should prepare the Bhasma with earnestness and keep it dried.

13.    Then he should consecrate it by Seven Vyahritis, and apply it in the head, face, thighs, secret place, feet and in all other limbs of the body, uttering the mantras, Isana, Tatpurusha, Aghira, Vamadeva, Sadyojata, and Pranava, respectively; after besmearing it from head to feet, he should rinse the mouth and wear a white cloth and again should apply the Bhasma and end it with the rinsing again. After this only, O best of wise men, everyone should perform his daily actions.

14.    There are four kinds of Bhasma, first is Anukalpa; second Upakalpa; third Upopakalpa and the fourth is Akalpa. That which is prepared by the ceremonies of Agnihotra and Virujanala is called Anukalpa. That, which is prepared, according to the rules of Grihya Sutras, from the dried cow dung collected from the forest, is named Upakalpa. Upopakalpa is, that which, having collected the dried cow dung from the forest and powdering it with the cow's urine, is prepared from the same balls according to the religious rules. That which is taken from the Temple of Siva is called Akalpa and Satukalpa.

15.    Thus the four kinds of Bhasma destroys the sin and gives one Salvation. Thus says the Lord Kalagni Rudra.

Thus ends the 3rd Brahmana.


Next Bhusunda asked Kalagnirudra the rules of bathing by Bhasma.

2.    He replied one should powder the Bhasma reciting Om and consecrate it by the seven Pranavas (Bhoh to Satyam). By the same mantra he should seek protection from all the quarters (from the evil spirits). Next by the same astra (weapon) mantra, he should besmear himself with Bhasma, the head and other parts of the body. This is called 'Malasnana' (dirt removal).

3.    By reciting the five mantras Isana &c., one should apply the Bhasma orderly:- by Isana the head, by Tatpurusha the face, by Aghora the thighs, by Vamadeva the secret place, by Sadyojata the feet and by Om all the parts of the body. Thus applying the Bhasma from head to foot, he should rinse his mouth and wear a washed or white cloth. This is called Vidhisnana (bathing according to the rules).

4.    In this there are the verses. Take a handful of Bhasma and consecrate it by the Vedic mantras; and apply it from head to foot. This is called 'Malasnana' as said above with the mantras.

5.    Next Vidhisnana: By Isana mantra one should apply five times the Bhasma in the head with earnestness; by Tatpurusha four times in the face; by Aghora eight times in the heart; by Vamadeva thirteen times in the secret place; by Sadyojata eight times in the feet. Thus it should be applied with earnestness. The application in the whole body should be repeated in the night also, without neglecting the rules, except reciting the Isana mantra (for the head).

6.    The application of Bhasma is regularly in the two twilights (Sandhyas), night, morning and evening, after sleep, after eating and drinking water, after performing any necessary actions; in touching the woman, eunuch, eagle, cat, heron, rat, and similar things, one should repeat the Bhasmasnana.

7.    In approaching gods, sacred fire, Guru, revered men, and when seen by the low classmen and treading the impure places, mere besmearing with Bhasma will not be enough. He should apply Tripundra, (also) mixed with conch water, reciting the Panchakshara mantra.

8.    The Bhasma powder mixed with a good sandal paste is productive of Knowledge. Before noon one should not use the above paste-Bhasma.

9.    Next Bhusunda asked the Lord Kalagni Rudra the rules of Tripundra, (the three lines).

10.    (He replied). There are the verse in this. Next one should draw the Tripundra which represents Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, by the middle three fingers, or by the first, third and fourth fingers, reciting the Panchakshara Mantra. (The latter one will give a little trouble and is not easy enough to observe. Hence it has become out of practice).

11.    The Brahmana should apply it first in the face; the Kshatriya, in the head.

12.    One should apply it in thirty-two places, sixteen, eight or in five places. The thirty-two places are 1 head, 2 fore-head, 3 and 4 ears, 5 and 6 eyes, 7 nose, 8 mouth, 9 neck, 10 and 11 fore-arms, 12 and 13 elbows, 14 and 15 wrists, 16 chest, 17 and 18 two sides, 19 navel, 20 and 21 the two secret parts (the generative organ and testicles), 22 buttock, 23 and 24 thighs, 25 and 26 Fore part of the thighs, 27 and 28 knees, 29 and 30 ankles, and 31 and 32 feet.

13.    The presiding deities of the above places are the eight murties (Earth to Ether, Sun, Moon and Atman) the eight Vidyesvaras, the eight Dikpalas (the deities of the 8 quarters), and the eight Vasus, namely, 1 Dharma, 2 Druva, 3 Soma, 4, Kripa, 5 Anila, 6 Anala, 7 Pratyusha and 8 Prabhasa. Repeating the names of the above gods, the learned one should draw the Tripundara in their respective places.

14.    In sixteen places one should draw the Tripundra carefully. They are 1 head, 2 fore-head, 3 and 4 ears, 5 neck, 6 and 7 fore-arms, 8 and 9 elbows, 10 and 11 wrists, 12 chest, 13 navel, 14 and 15 two sides and 16 back.

15.    In each place one should meditate on the respective presiding deities. They are, 1 Siva, 2 Sakti, 3 Sadasiva, 4 Isa, 5 Vidya, 6 to 14 the nine Saktis, Vama &c., 15 and 16 the two asvini deities called Nasatya and Dasra.

16.    Or the sixteen places are, 1 head, 2 forehead, 3 and 4 ears, 5 nose, 6 and 7 hands, 8 chest, 9 navel, 10 and 11 thighs, 12 and 13 knees, 14 and 15 feet and 16 the back side.

17.    The presiding deities are 1 Siva, 2 Indra, 3 Rudra, 4 Arka, 5 Vignesvara, 6 Vishnu, 7 Sri, 8 Hridayesa (Rudra), 9 Prajapati in the navel, 10 Naga, 11 and 12 two Nagakanyas, 13 and 14 the two Rishi Kanyas, 15 Samudra in the feet, and 16 the Tirthas in the back. Thus are the 16 places.

18.    Now the eight places are described. 1 the Guru's place (head), 2 fore-head, 3 and 4 ears, 5 and 6 fore-arms, 7 chest, 8 the eight is navel.

19.    The eight deities are, Brahma and Seven Rishis (Atri to Angiras).

20.    The five places are 1 face, 2 and 3 hands, 4 chest and 5 navel. Thus the learned in the truth of Bhasma say.

21.    One should observe one of them according to his ability, time and circumstances. If anyone is unable to apply Udhulana (besmearing) he can draw the Tripundra in the following places: in the elbows, fore-arms, back, head and fore-head.

22.    The following are the mantras to be recited when the Tripundra is drawn in the places:- in fore-head, adoration to Brahman; in the heart, adoration to Agni; in the navel, adoration to Skandha; in the neck, adoration to Vishnu; in the elbows, adoration to Vayu; in the wrist, adoration to the Vasus; in the back, adoration to Hari; in the face, adoration to Sambu; and in the head, adoration to Paramatman.

23.    (There is another reading). One should draw the Tripundra in the forehead meditating on the Lord who has the three eyes, who is the support of the three qualities and who is the father of the three (gods), while reciting the mantra 'Namassivaya'; in the wrist, on the two pitris; in the elbows, on the two Lords (Isanasa), in the two sides, on the two Isas; in the fore-arms, on the two Svachchas; in the back, on Bhima; in its two sides, on Siva and Nilakantha; and in the head, on the Sarvatman.

24.    This (Tripundra) destroys all his sins even acquired in his previous births. It removes the sins committed by the organs which are above neck, by the drawing of Tripundra in those places. If it is applied in the ears, the sins and diseases of them are removed; if in the arms , the sins committed by them are removed; if in the chest, the sin committed by the mind is removed; if in the navel the sin committed by the generative organ is destroyed; if in the back, the sin committed by the anus is removed; if applied in the sides, the sin committed by the embracing etc., other women is removed. One should draw the Tripundra in all the parts of the body. By this he is supposed to be carrying (worshipping) the three gods, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara, the three sacred fires, the three gunas, and the three worlds.

Thus ends the fourth Brahmana.


One should wear the Bhasma consecrated by the mantra 'manastoka'. The uppermost line represents Samaveda; the middle one Yajus, (and the last one Rig). The Brahmanas and Kshatriyas should reciting the Trayayusha mantra apply the Bhasma, in the fore-head, two arms, navel, head, chest and both sides.

2.    All the first three classes should take the Bhasma prepared by the Agnistotra. To the house-holder the Bhasma prepared by Virajagni is good. The great men declare, the Bhasma prepared by Virajagni is good for them; it is better to have it from Aupasana fire, as the house-holders worship (it daily). The Brahmacharins should use the Bhasma prepared by the Samidadana fire (the fire which is worshipped by the Brahmacharins). The Sudras should have the Bhasma got from the hearth of the Vedic Brahmanas.

3.    It produces wisdom to the Sanyasins and creates dispassion to the forest dwellers. They that are above the caste and stage rules (ativarna) can have it from the fire of the burning ground. All of them can get the Bhasma from the temple of God. The Siva yogis should have it prepared from the Sivagni (agni which is worshipped by a certain method). It can be accepted if it comes from the Siva temple, or that which had been applied to the Sivalinga, or that which has been prepared by the religious ceremonies.

4.    In this there are the verses. The Brahmana has studied all the vedas and heard all and he has performed all his actions, who wears the Tripundra in his fore-head. Though one who has not observed his caste and stage rules and not performed all his actions, he is honored, if he wears the Tripundra once. They, who perform the daily ceremonies, without wearing the Bhasma, do not get rid of the trans migratory life even by crores of births. O intelligent one, they hate deeply the wearing of the Tripundra and Udhulana (besmearing) who have committed the heinous crimes and acquired sins in their previous births. Their birth in mixture should be inferred by the learned one, O Brahmana, who hate by looking at those who wear the Bhasma in their fore-head. It should be decided that they have not undergone the purificatory ceremonies from the conception forward, who have no faith always, O Sage, in the Vedic Bhasma. Their existence is inferred by the intelligent, as born in the Chandala families, who beat, O Brahmana, him, who wears the Bhasma. This is the decision of the Sastras, that they are possessed with the heinous crimes who hate the wearing of Bhasma and its authority. They insult Siva indeed, who hate the Tripundra. They carry (worship) Siva who wear the Tripundra. Fie the fore-bead where there is no Bhasma. Fie the village where there is no Siva temple. Fie the birth which does never worship Isa. Fie the knowledge who has no learning on Siva.

5.    The holy essence of the Rudragni is said to be the Bhasma. Therefore one should possess the essence in the form of Bhasma at all the times. The sins are burned of him who possess the Bhasma, as he possesses the fire of Bhasma. He is called the possessor of Bhasma, who has been purified by the bathing of Bhasma. The person is called the possessor of Bhasma, who has applied the Bhasma in the whole parts of his body, who shines himself by the Tripundra of Bhasma, and who takes his bed in the Bhasma.

Thus ends the fifth Brahmana.


Next Bhusunda asked Kalagnirudra to explain the greatness of the five names (Vibhuti ….Ruksha).

2.    He replied. There was a Brahmana by name Karuna, born as the son to the eldest wife of Dhananjaya of Vasishtha family, who had hundred wives. He had a wife called Suchismita. This Karuna unable to bear the enmity of his brothers, went to the temple of Nrisimha at the bank of Bhavani. There, he ate the Jambira fruit brought by someone to be dedicated to the god. Then they who were there cursed him, O Sinful one, become a fly for one hundred years. He also receiving the curse, to become a fly, reported this to his wife and asked her to protect him (during the period of the curse). Next he became a fly. Having known this, his brothers killed throwing it in the oil vessel. She (his wife) taking the dead husband, approached Arundati (Vasistha's wife). Arundati said, enough of sorrow, O Suchismita, I shall revive him now through the Vibhuti. Then she threw a little Bhasma got from the Agnihotra fire in the dead body reciting Mrityunjaya Mantra (Trayambakam Yajamahe &c). Then by the fanning of Suchismita a little breeze arose there. Immediately the dead creature came to life by the influence of that Bhasma. Then at the end of the period of the hundred years, again one of his relations killed him and five others at Kasi and they were revived by the influence of the Bhasma.

3.    The Devas and myself who were once afflicted by the above were revived by the Bhasma. Therefore, O Sinless one, I shall revive thy husband. So saying the holy Dadhichi Rishi revived him and assuming his original form resorted to his hermitage.

4.    Now will be explained the power of the Bhasma which consumes all the Sins.

5.    At the time of the marriage of Gautama Rishi, seeing Ahalya (his wife), all the Devas have become enamored. Then they lost their wisdom, and approaching Durvasa Rishi, asked him (the remedy).

6.    He replied I shall remove your sin. Once upon a time I gave you all the Bhasma, consecrated by the Satarudra mantra, in order to remove the sin of Brahmanicide &c. Thus addressing, he gave them the holy Bhasma. And said again, you all have become more enlightened by my grace.

7.    Then the Devas said, O Sage, we have become sinless as soon as we applied the Bhasma consecrated by the Satarudra mantra, in our body. Just only we realize this wonderful influence of the Bhasma.

8.    (Kalagnirudra Says) O Bhusunda, hear from me the another power of the Bhasma. This is indeed endowing wisdom on Hari and Sankara. This is the destroyer of the Sins of Brahminicide &c.. and also gives a great prosperity. Thus saying, taking out a little Bhasma for the heart of Siva by the nail Hari besmeared himself, the head and other parts of his body reciting the Gayatri and the Panchakshara mantra. Then Siva said to Hari, meditate in your heart. Meditating in his heart Hari said to Siva 'seen by me'. Then take in a little Bhasma so said Siva to Hari. Yes. I will take in the auspicious Bhasma. But let me first bathe myself with Bhasma. Thus addressing the Lord, who is to be seen by devotion, Achyuta took in the Bhasma. Then there was a great wonder. Vasudeva immediately became white like a crystal, equal to the color of the white pearl. From that time forward Vasudeva has become white in color and bright.

9.    I am unable to understand the power of the Bhasma. How can I, O Lord, understand thy majesty? Adoration to Thee, adoration to Thee. I take refuge in Thee. Let me have, O Sambhu, always devotion in Thy feet. The wearer of the Bhasma (only) will become my devotee, (said the Lord).

10.    Therefore This Bhuti is said to be the bestower of prosperity (Bhutikarl). In his (the wearer) from side the Vasus reside. The Rudras, in the right, the Adityas in the back side, the Visve Devas in the left, the Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvaras in the navel, and the sun and the moon are on both sides.

11.    This is declared by a verse. The Rigs have been established in the Supreme and imperishable ether (of the heart) in which all the Devas reside. What will one do with the Rig, if he does not realize this? They who realize this, they resort to (the ether of the heart, apply this to the Bhasma also).

12.    This Brihat Jabala (Upanishad) is the bestower of all the desires and leads him to the door of Salvation. This is the Rig, Yajus and Sama vedas, and is Brahman itself and immortality. He who studies the Brihat Jabala, whether he be a boy or a youth, attains the greatness. He becomes the Guru and instructor of all the mantras.

13.    One should tie the 'Mritya Taraka' (a single rudraksha which transcends one, the death), received from the Guru, in the neck, in the (right) arm, or in the tuft of hair (Here is the Vedic authority to wear a single Rudraksha).

14.    Even the world consisting of the Seven islands is not enough to give him fee in return. Therefore with devotion one should give him any sort of a cow. That is the fee, (how it is reduced to a Gomulya i.e., to the price of a cow, Rs. 3-80).

Thus ends the sixth Brahmana.


Next Janaka of the Videha country approaching, addressed Yajnavalkya. O holy one, instruct me the rules of the Tripundra.

2.    He replied. The mantra for handling the Bhasma is the Pancha Brahma mantra 'Sadyojata etc'; for consecrating it, 'Agniriti Bhasma, etc'; for taking it 'manastoke etc'; for mixing it with water 'Trayayusham Jamadageh' etc; for applying it in the head, fore-head, chest and fore-arms, is 'Tryambakam, etc'. Thus the performer becomes pure and gets salvation. Whatever one gets as the result of reciting the Satarudra mantra, gets the same by this application. This is the light of the Bhasma (Bhasma jyotih). Thus says Yajnavalkya.

3.    Janaka of Videha country addressed Yajnavalkya what is the result one gets by wearing the Bhasma. He replied. By wearing the Bhasma only one gets salvation and attains the equality of Siva (Sayujya). He does not take the rebirth, he does not take the rebirth. This is the light of the Bhasma. Thus says Yajnavalkya.

4.    Janaka of Videha country addressed Yajnavalkya, whether one gets the good result or not by wearing the Bhasma? He replied. By wearing the Bhasma only the Paramahamsa-Samvartaka, Aruni, Srutaketu, Durvasa, Ribhu, Nidagha, Jadabharata, Dattatreya, Raivatuka, Bhusunda and others have become the liberated ones. This is the light of the Bhasma. Thus says Yajnavalkya.

5.    Janaka of Videha country addressed Yajnavalkya what is the result of bathing with the Bhasma? He replied. All the hair pits in his body become Sivalingas; whether he be a Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya, or Sudra, attains the above position by merely wearing the Bhasma.

6.    Janaka of Videha country, with Pippalada resorted to the regions of Prajapati. Approaching, he addressed him, O Prajapati, tell me the greatness of Tripundra. Prajapati replied him. Just as the greatness of Isvara so is that of the Tripundra.

7.    Next Pippalada resorted to the Vikuntha. Approaching addressed him, O Vishnu, tell me the greatness of the Tripundra. Vishnu replied. Just as the greatness of Isvara, so is that of Tripundra.

8.    Next Pippalada approaching Kalagnirudra addressed him, instruct me, O Lord the rules of Tripundra. He replied I am unable to explain the rules of the Tripundra. He (Pippalada) said, it is true.

9.    He who covers his body by the Bhasma becomes freed from the samsara. He who takes his bed in the Bhasma becomes equal to Siva. He never comes back, he never comes back. The reciter of the Rudra mantra (wearing it) attains the state of immortality. This is the light of the Bhasma.

10.    By wearing the Vibhuti he becomes one with Brahman. By mere wearing the Bibhuti one gets the result of bathing in all the holy waters. By wearing the Vibhuti one requires as much results as he gets by the bathing in the Varanasi. This is the light of the Bhasma.

11.    When the three marks of the Tripundra are seen in one's body, one should take the first as representing Prajapati, the second, Vishnu and the third Sadasiva. This is the light of the Bhasma.

12.    Next Sanatkuamra addressed Kalagnirudra, instruct me, O Lord, the rules of wearing the Rudraksha.

13.    He replied. The Rudrakshas have come out from the eyes (aksha) of Rudra. Thus it is known to the world. SadaSiva, at the time of destruction, having dissolved the universe, closes his destructive eye (the third eye). From that eye have come out the Rudrakshas. Hence they are named Rudrakshas.

14.    By mere uttering the name of Rudraksha, one obtains as much result as that of giving the gift of ten cows. This is the light of the Bhasma as the Rudraksha.

15.    The mere wearing of it touching by the hand, brings one as much result as that of giving in gift of two thousand cows. The carrying the Rudraksha in the ears brings one the result of giving in gift eleven thousand cows; and also he attains the state of eleven Rudras. When one carries the Rudraksha on his head gets the result of giving in gift one crore of cows. Of all the places, it is impossible to tell the result of carrying it in the ears. Thus said he.

16.    On the head forty-for; in the tuft of hair one or three; in the ears twelve; around the neck thirty-two; in each arm sixteen; in each wrist twelve; and in each thumb six.

17.    Next he should perform Sandhya daily with munja grass (on his hand) and give oblation in the fire reciting the mantras 'Agnirjyptih' etc.

Thus ends the seventh Brahmana.


Next (Bhusunda) asked him, O Lord, tell me the result of (studying) the Brihat Jabala.

2.    He replied. He, who studies the Brihat Jabala daily, is purified by the Agni, is purified by Vayu, by the Sun, by the Moon, Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra, and he is purified by all.

3.    He, who studies the Brihat Jabala daily arrests (the power of) the Agni, of Vayu, of the Sun, the Moon, Water, all the devas, all the planets, and he arrests the power of poison he arrests the power of poison. (The repetition is to emphasis it).

4.    He who studies the Brihat Jabala daily, transcends the death, sins, the sin of slaying the Brahmana, the embryo and the hero; and he crosses the sins of slaying all. He transcends the samsara and transcends all, transcends all.

5.    He who studies the Brihat Jabala daily conquers, the Bhuloka, the Bhuvarloka, Suvah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah, and Satyalokas; and he conquers all the worlds.

6.    He who studies the Brihat Jabala daily, gets the virtue of Studying the Rig, Yajus, Saman, and Atharva Vedas, Angiras, Sakhas, Narasamsis (Itihasas), and Puranas, and he gets the virtue of studying the Pranava of Brahman, the Pranava of Brahman.

7.    The uninitiated of one hundred are equal to one initiate (upanita); the one hundred of the same is equal to one householder; the hundreds of the same, to the forest dweller; the same hundred is equal to one Sanyasin; the hundreds of the same to the reciter of Rudra mantra; the one hundred of the same to the reader of the Nrisimhatapini Upanishad; the one hundred of the same, to the reader of the Atharvasikha; and the one hundred of the same is equal to one who studies the Brihat Jabala.

8.    This is, indeed, the Supreme abode of him, who studies always the Brihat Jabala, where the sun does not shine, where the wind does not blow, where the moon does not give light, nor the stars where the fire does not burn, where death does not enter, and where there is no suffering.

9.    This is the Supreme abode, which is ever-blissful, and happy, calm, eternal, ever auspicious, worshipped by Brahama and others, and meditated upon by the Yogins; and entering which the Yogins do not return.

10.    This is declared by a verse. That is the supreme abode of the all-pervading one, (Vishnu) which the sage sees always. It is the light ever-spreading, as if that in the heaven. The seers, when they get rid of anger, and when they are ever wakeful, realize the supreme abode of the all-pervading one.

11.    Om, Truth. Thus ends the Upanishat.

R. A. Sastri.