THE ETHICS OF KURAL.*
[* A paper read before the Young Men's Hindu Association, Madras.]
KURAL, in Tamil, signifies a couplet of a peculiar metre. As the work is composed of such couplets, it passes by the name of Tirukkural, by synecdoche, Tiru ( ) denoting holy. The author goes by the name of Tiruvalluva Nayanar. These are the popular names by which the work and the author pass current in Tamil Literature and among Tamil scholars. There are other honorific designations for the author, such as Saint, First Poet, Divine Poet, Brahma and Great scholar; and for the work, such as the work of three books, Modern Veda, Divine Work, Faultless word, Tamil Veda and Universal Veda.
Those of you, who wish to have our idea of the personal appearance of the sage, may proceed to his shrine at Mylapore, a minute's walk from the Barber's Bridge, and witness the statue of the canonized saint. The folded knot of his lock, the bushy moustache and beard sweeping over his breast, the gravity of the forehead, the broad eyes revealing his noble heart, and the grace of his majestic frame are such as remind one of Plato and Socrates. Add to these, the beads in his right and the moral code in the left hand, the saint in a sitting posture on a raised seat, seeming to impart instruction to his disciples, you will verily believe that he is a Tamil Rishi next to Agasthya. He is in fact said to be the great grandson of Agasthya. At least the genealogy framed by the pandit's states so.
Modern researches of Tamil scholars of critical acumen, and also internal evidence of two of the Five Great Tamil Epics, go to establish, that Tiruvalluva Nayanar live in the first century of the Christian era, if not earlier. At any state, the Dark Ages of Europe had not entirely passed away, the Middle Ages had not yet dawned, the Mohamedan caliphate there was not, and Christendom was just in its seed-pot, when our moralist was planning his work, and bending over his loom for his daily bread, in the great historical city of Mylapore. Most of the great Champions and Leaders of Hinduism, in its various aspects of Sivaism, Vaishnavism, and Adwaitism, made their avatars a considerably long time after our great Eclectic. Nevertheless it was an age when the Tamil country was, within historical periods, for the first time, in its zenith of power and fame. The Tamil country was a great commercial Emporium between the East and the West. The Aryan Brahmans had long ago colonized the Dravidian country, and secured, to some extent, ministerial and spiritual offices under the Three Great Tamil sovereigns. The third and last Tamil College of the Pandiyas in Madura – the then great University of Southern India – was in a flourishing state. At the metropolitan seats, we understand from contemporary literature there were Buddhist and Jain shrines side by side with Vaishnava and Saiva temples. There were temples dedicated to Indra and Brahma now forgotten deities. It seems to have been an age of Religious toleration. It was an age, when learned scholars were patronized by gentlemen, heroes and kings. It was an age of wide poetical creation. It was also an age, when other fine arts received princely patronage. It was the Elizabethan and the Augustan age, as it were, of the Tamils. Excepting the modern wonders of the Press, steam and electricity, the age seemed to be an archetype of the enlightened current century.
In such an age, and such a country, and amidst such classical surroundings, was born, at Mylapore, the Socrates of Southern India – the last of the seven issues of the intermarriage of a Brahman and an outcaste, as tradition would have it. It is not our purpose here to eke out truth, by analyzing the myths and legends in the crucible of modern scholarly criticism. That there was such a personage who produced the great work is sufficient for our present purposes. Nor need we expatiate upon the spotless and unsullied life said to have been led by this Solo Gnanion of the Tamils.
His work is one of the two oldest works now extant in Tamil Literature in their entirety, the other being the great grammar of Tolkappiyanar. That this work has been preserved these 1800 years and more, without the least addition or omission, is a lasting evidence of the greatness and immortality of the work. Many subsequent works of even a later production have undergone such multifarious textual variations that it is impossible in many passages to find the real author. The Tamils regard the Tirukkural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar in such high veneration, that they believe the author to be an incarnation of the creator of the universe – the great Brahma, and have canonized this paragon as a literary saint. Kural is to the Tamils what the Holy Bible is to Christendom, the Koran to the followers of the Prophet, and the divine Vedas to the Brahmans. And its unique feature is that it is not admixture with any mythology or any special theology. Let us now analysis the contents of this great moral code – 'the master-piece of Tamil Literature'.
Tamil Literature is based from very remote times on a peculiar philosophical classification. Subject matter of the domain of literature relates to either internal or external phenomena, matter interior (அகப்பொருள்) or exterior (புறப்பொருள்). The former deals of the passions and affections of the mind which act on man internally; and the latter of things external to man. The former treats especially of clandestine and wedded love; and the latter of the ways of living and thriving in the world, i.e., of virtue and wealth. Virtue, wealth and love are all held as subservient to, and as means of, obtaining Eternal Bliss, which is not discussed in books, as it is incomprehensible and indescribable. It is now clear that the Brahman classification of the objects of humanity into Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha is well involved in a highly philosophic form in the Tamil classification. Tiruvalluva Nayanar, in the largeness of his heart, has imposed upon himself a humanizing task of leaving to the world a work which forms as it were a ladder to Eternal Bliss. Any genius, even of the first class, can add no more to his work complete in itself. He discusses at large Virtue, Wealth and Love, leaving his readers to infer that one who passes safely through these three ordeals is a welcome guest in Heaven.
In the Third Book of 25 chapters, on clandestine and wedded love, will be found the various shades of niceties in the growth and fruition of Love, better than you can trace them in the plot of a well-developed English or French novel. There are also a number of other works in Tamil which elaborate Love in all its traits. They seem to uphold an imaginary and airy ideal of Love. Some of these traits are embodied even in purely religious hymns and sonnets. Manickavasagar a veriest ascetic – has written a work detailing these traits in praise of Siva at Chidambaram. And it seems a paradox that there should be a Book on Love at the end of our profound moral code. This ideal is explained by a great scholar and poet of the Madura College in the following manner: - One who is initiated into this ideal of love will ask his reverend master "what, sir! Is the way of enjoying this love impossible for mortals?" The reverend sage answers the question – "You will have, my dear son, before you enjoy this divine love, to perform austere penance", and initiates his willing disciple into the mysteries of penance.
The disciple after passing through the ordeal of penance penetrates into himself, and begins to abhor the burden of his flesh and its meanness, to depreciate the lusty love which opened his way to penance, and to see divine light. This divine light leads him unto heaven and perennial bliss even unto eternity. This is the philosophy of the Love of Tamil Literature. And it is a matter of gilding the pill. To those who have not a lesson of this philosophy of Love, one half of Tamil Literature is but a lusty love. You now see that there is Ethics, why even divine Ethics too, in this Third Book of Kural.
Passing over the first four chapters of the work, which form only a kind of introduction to it, we will take a pleasant walk through an avenue of 104 chapters, which are distributed between virtue and wealth, 34 for the former and 70 for the latter. Of the 34 chapters on virtue, 20 are devoted to Domestic virtue, and 14 to Ascetic virtue. This is the First Book. As for the Second Book on Wealth, it should be here observed parenthetically that Tamil scholars are of opinion that a delineation of the virtue and policy of the sovereign involves all that should be said on Wealth. Of the 70 chapters on wealth. 25 chapters are devoted to Royalty, 10 to Ministers of State, 22 to essentials of a state. The remaining 13 chapters form an appendix to this Book or rather to the first two books. The earthly Ethics of Kural must therefore be evolved from the first two books.
These first two Books draw the attention of every foreigner who begins and likes to have any acquaintance with Tamil Literature. The extreme exaggerations and hyperbolical language of the Epics repel him. But he pauses over these two Books, and admires the logical order of the subjects discussed, the pithy moral enigmas, and the sublime tone of morality inculcated therein. He who first despised the Tamils as half clad heathens and semi-barbarians now admires them for the valuable treasure locked up in their language. These two books are an eye sore to the Christian missionary who always comes to the east puffed up with the so-called sublimity of Christian morality. He can deprecate any other thing in Tamil Literature. But this ancient and splendid monument, he dares no slander. This is a stumbling block which can brow-beat the most sublime ideas of Christian morality. The Christian missionary, under the impression that our author lived between 800 and 1000 A. D. has attempted to establish, that the Christian scriptures were among the sources from which the poet derived his inspiration, as in that time Mylapore was a center of Christian asylum on the Coromandal coast after the advent of St. Thome after whom the place is now called by Europeans. But this statement of the missionary is an absurd literary anachronism. Our friend does not give his reasons; but that it is correct there can be no doubt. Prof. Seshagiri Sastriyar, M.A., states some of them in his new pamphlet "Essay on Tamil Literature" which will be noticed more fully in our next.
Except in the appendix we can only glean morals incidentally here and there from the Second Book. The appendix has some chapters on affirmative morality such as Honor, Greatness, Perfection, Courtesy and self-reprobation; and also some on negative morality such as Dread of Poverty, Mendicancy, and Dread of mendicancy and Vileness. The general drift of the appendix is that one should by dint of perseverance and industry try to raise his social status, and preserve his self-respect and independence. The author advocates Agriculture as the best of professions. This appendix in short reveals the ideal citizen who instead of being a drone feeding on the product of other's labor should be an ornament of society by exhibiting traits of nobility, honor, greatness, and perfection, at the same time relieving the indigent, and sustaining the prestige of the family.
The first part of the Second Book on Royalty explains the ideal sovereign. He should be well read, and keep befitting company. He should not let opportunities slide. He should use his discretion in the choice of civil and military servants. His scepter should be of gold firm yet popular and not of iron. He should ever be active without any despair in affliction.
The second part on ministers of state discusses their qualifications, and their conduct in the royal court and while on embassy. Here the author shows such minute observations and study of political manners that he is really Baconian in his discussion.
The third part on the Essentials of a state explains the necessaries of a kingdom, policy to be observed in international relationship, and the tactics of warfare. This part also forbids Uxoriousness and Harlotry, Intoxication and Gambling. The last chapter explains a very simple practical art of prolonging life and health.
The last chapter of the First Book discusses the Force of Destiny which is all powerful. The second part of the First Book on Ascetic Virtue teaches mercy to animals and forbids Animal food; insists on Penitence and protests against the Inconsistent conduct of Ascetics; discourages Fraud, Wrath, Giving pain to others and killing; and encourage Truthfulness. This part also commends Wisdom, Knowledge of Truth, Renunciation and Extirpation of desire, and reveals the Instability of earthly things. This part might well have found a place at the end of the volume, but the author's plan justifies its present place.
The first part of the First Book depicts Domestic Virtue, and it is the part which upholds the model man and householder. The author finds that Domestic Virtue preponderates in the balance, and gives his palm to it.
"The ideal householder leads on earth a consecrated life, not unmindful of any duty to the living or to be departed. His wife – the glory of his house – is modest and frugal; adores her husband guards herself, and is the guardian of his house's fame. His children are his choicest treasures; their babbling voices are his music; and his one aim is to make them worthier than himself. Affection is the very life of his soul; of all his virtues the first and greatest. The sum and source of all is Love. His house is open to every guest, whom he welcomes with smiling face and pleasant word, and with whom he shares his meal. Courteous in speech, grateful for every kindness, just in all his dealings, master of himself in perfect self-control, strict in the performance of every assigned duty, pure, patient and forbearing, with a heart free from envy, modest in desires, speaking no evil of others, refraining from unprofitable words, dreading the touch of evil, diligent in the discharge of all the duties of his position, and liberal in his benefactions, he is one whom all unite to praise" Rev. Dr. Pope.
We have glanced over the contents of the volume. We are not in Utopia. The work propounds an ideal monarchy with ideal householders and citizens and true ascetics, all enjoying the sweets of the world unsullied, and attaining Divine Bliss. Those who can command leisure can make a comparative study of Valluvar's Kural and Plato's Republic. I am sure Valluvar's monarchy will out do Plato's Republic.
Having gained a comprehensive view of the author and his work, we may now recount the Ethics of Kural. We have here no scope for a psychological study of the work. An Ethical and Aesthetical study of it can very well be made, ethical in as much as we have a system of rules for regulating the actions of men, and aesthetical in so far the author conveys his ideas in a beautiful and attractive manner.
Domestic Virtue is based on affection. Devoid of affection, one's body is but a bony frame clad in skin. Body is the seat of life only when love resides within. Hospitality is the essence of domestic virtue. The great at your gate is as delicate as Anicha flower. It withers with a smell, and the guest is abashed with but one cold look. Sweet words accompany Hospitality.
Who sees the pleasure kindly speech affords*
Why makes he use of harsh repellent words?
When pleasant words are easy, bitter words to use.
Is leaving sweet ripe fruit, the sour unripe to choose.
[* These verses are quoted from the excellent Oxford edition of Rev. Dr. G. U. Pope, M.A., D. D.]
Gratitude comes next. To be grateful, one need not return a good done to him. Feel the benevolence of it, enough. It is so strong that the mere thought of one good effaces the deadliest injury done you by the self same person. Gratitude is not measure for measure and weight for weight. It is here that you should make a mountain of a mole-hill, a palmyra of a millet seed. It does not become you to forget a good done; it is very good to forget an evil done you. In his Sermon on the Mount Jesus said "If ye forgive men their trespasses, you heavenly Father will also forgive you" But our author advises you to forget trespasses, and he is only in the positive degree. In his chapter on Patience he is in the comparative degree.
With overweening pride when men with injuries assail
By thine own righteous dealing shalt thou prevail.
In another place where he would have you "shame your enemies by returning kindly benefits and pass unheeded the evil done by them", he is surely in the superlative degree. And yet he does not fall short of Jesus who preached in the above said resermon "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you." But in advising to forget other's trespasses.
Though our author is peculiarly strong on gratitude, yet he would not let you for its sake by impartial in your dealings.
To stand, like balance rod that level hangs and right; weighs,
With calm unbiased equity of soul, is sage's praise.
The author then admonishes us to guard our tongue that unruly member of our body: -
Whatever they fail to guard, over lips men guard should keep
If not, through fault of tongue, they bitter tears shall weep.
The sore inflamed by fire may heal, not so
The sore inflamed by tongue.
Those who soil the sanctity of the conjugal bed are numbered with the dead by the author. He would count with ascetics these who endure with patience the evil words of transgressors, and would place even ascetics in the lower grade for the sake of these men. Then Envy cause of all ruin.
Envy they have within! Enough to seal their fate
Though foemen fail, envy can rain consummate.
A word of warning against Coveting: -
What saves prosperity from swift decline?
Absence of best to make another's cherished riches thine.
And then against Back-biting: --
In presence though unkindly words you speak, say not
In absence words whose ill result exceeds your thought
It is greater gain of virtuous good for man to die
Than live to slander absent friend and falsely praise when nigh.
The chapter on
ஒப்புரவறிதல், which is given to the needy deserves the name of gift; all else has in view recompense". "To receive is bad though good it be said. To give is virtue though you gain no heaven". The goal of the householder is renown. Without this, life loses its charms. Even the ideal presented by the great peasant poet of Scotland in Cottar's Saturday Night does not excel our ideal.
Ascetic virtue is based on Grace, as Domestic virtue on Affection. Grace is interpreted as the renunciation of flesh eating. When there is no one who would eat flesh, there will be no one who would sell flesh.
Than Ten thousand rich oblations, with libations rare,
Better the flesh of slaughtered beings not to share.
Then are rebuked those who hood-wink the world under the cloak of asceticism. These are wolves in sheep's clothing.
If you shun what all the world condemns as wrong,
What's the worth of shaven head or tresses long?
Fraud is then condemned –
'Tis sin if in the mind man but the thought conceive,
By fraud I will my neighbor of his wealth bereave.
Then the author upholds Truth which he explains as speech free from all taint of evil. If you utter what you know to be false as true, your own heart brands you. It matters not if you may leave other acts of virtue undone, if you but uphold the cause of Truth.
Outward purity water will bestow
Inward purity from Truth alone will flow.
In this chapter of Truth, the author gives a plain practical advice, which rigid moralists may not allow.
Falsehood may take the place of truthful word,
If blessing, free from fault, it can afford.
This in that part of the book which preaches on Ascetic virtue! It is from this contextual position that the advice receives its striking significance. Our author is a humanitarian. He seems to belong to the school of utilitarian's who seek the greatest good of the greatest number. Truth is intended for the greatest good of the greatest number. If, at an exceptional moment, falsehood can do that office which Truth cannot do, of course without giving the least injury to any one, falsehood for the time being may (The words covey the idea that it is only a shift, like a gilt ornament for a really genuine gold one. It is no truth) occupy the place of truth. It will neither chide nor brand you, because no one suffers. And yet this is no sin as there is no equivocation in it as in "Aswathama Athah Kunjarah" of Krishna in the Bharata war.
Then follows Suppression of Anger. Suppressing your anger is really so only when you can do it where you can exercise your power and authority. What matter, if you check, or give it vent, where power you have none? As anger begets an endless train of evil, quench it: nip it in the bud. He who guards not against wrath, him his wrath shall stay. The drift of the chapter forbidding evil to others concurs with the great precept of Jesus "All things whatsoever Ye would that men should do to you, do Ye even so to them".
Whose soul has felt the bitter smart of wrong, how can\
He wrongs inflict on ever living soul of man.
Let us now proceed to gather some hints on morality from the many chapters of the Second Book on Wealth.
1. So learn that you may full or faultless learning gain;
Then in obedience meet to lessons learnt remain.
2. Perceptions manifold in men are of the mind alone
The value of the man by his companionship is known.
and this reminds us of the English saying
"Tell me your companions and I shall tell you what you are"
3. Weigh well the good of each, his failings closely scorn.
As these or those prevail, so estimate the man's.
4. Of greatness and of meanness too
The deeds of each are touchstone true.
5. Whatever you ponder let your aim be lofty still,
Fate cannot hinder always thwart you as it will.
6. His family decays and faults unheeded thrive,
Who, sunk in sloth, for noble objects doth not strive.
Then on the Way of Earning Wealth.
Their wealth, who blameless means can use right,
Is source of virtue and of choice delight.
Wealth gained by loss of love and grace,
Let man cast off from his embrace.
We then approach the chapters on Friendship.
1. What so hard for men to gain as friendship true?
What so sure defense against all that for can do?
2. It is not for laughter but for reproof when
You stray from right that you befriend.
3. Mean is the friendship that men blaze a forth
He's thus to me and such to him my worth.
4. As hand of him whose vesture slips away
Friendship at once the coming grief will stay.
5. Buy at all cost the friendship of the good,
And sell away even at a loss that of the bad.
There are many other fine sayings on Friendship. But there are two couplets whose sublimity even Bacon will admire.
1. Not folly merely, but familiar carelessness
Esteem it, when your friends cause distress.
2. To him who can neither receive as such, nor construe as such the injury inflicted by a friend, the day his friend offends will appear a day of grace.
Whoredom, Intoxication and Gambling are condemned wholesale.
1. As one in darkened room some stranger corpse in arms,
Is he who seeks delight in mercenary women's charms *
[* We draw the attention of our Gallant General to this Chapter.]
2. The drunkard's joy is sorrow to his mother's eyes
What must it be in presence of the truly wise.
3. Gambling is misfortune's other name over whom she casts her evil.
They suffer grievous want and sorrows sore bewail.
We have then of Greatness –
All men that live are one in circumstance of birth
Diversities of works give each his special worth.
The chapter on Perfectness – consummation of all morality deserves special attention.
1. All goodly things are duties to the men, they say,
Who set themselves to walk in virtue's perfect way.
2. The good of inward excellence they claim
The perfect men, all other good is only good in name.
3. Love, modesty, beneficence, benignant grace,
With truth, are pillars five of perfect virtue's resting place
4. The type of penitence is virtuous good that nothing slays;
To speak no ill of other men is perfect virtue's praise.
5. What fruit doth your perfection yield you, say!
Unless to men who work you ill you good repay?
6. Call them of perfect virtue's sea the shore,
Who, though the fates should fail, fail not for evermore.
Notwithstanding all his sublime morals, the venerable author would not revolutionize society. When you are at Rome, he would have you live as the Romans do.
As dwells the world, go with the world to dwell
In harmony – this is to wisely live and well.
Here is no danger, as in Tamil classics, world does not mean the masses, but denotes the wise.
From this rough bird's eye view of the Ethics of Kural, we find that the author is a cosmopolite – citizen of the world, except that he speaks and writes in Tamil. His work is of universal interest. It has found a home in England, France, Germany and Italy. Every sectarian in India – at least in Southern India, claims kindred with the author. The Christian missionary has gone so far as to call this grand system of morals, an Echo of the Sermon on the Mount. The Rev. Drew, however, wrote in 1840 thus: - "The Kural has a strong claim upon our attention, as a part of the literature of the Country, and as a work of intrinsic excellence. The author, passing over what is peculiar to particular classes of society, and introducing such ideas only as are common to all, has avoided the uninteresting details of observances found in Manu and the other shastras and thus in general maintains a dignified style. It cannot be supposed necessary for the sake of Christianity to deny to such works whatever degree of merit they may possess. Christianity requires not the aid of falsehood or of concealment. Nor need we wish to blacken the systems and books of the country beyond what truth will warrant. The Kural itself, esteemed the best book of morals written by a Hindu, is an illustration of this remark". And again M. Ariel, quoted in Rev. Pope's preface to his valuable Edition of The Kural, speaks of the work as 'one of the highest and purest expressions of human thought' and adds "That which above all is wonderful in the Kural is the fact that its author addresses himself, without regard to castes, peoples or beliefs, to the whole community of mankind; the fact that he formulates sovereign morality and absolute reason; that he proclaims in their very essence in their eternal abstractedness, virtue and truth; that he presents as it were, in one group the highest laws of domestic and social life; that he is equally perfect in thought, in language and in poetry, in the austere metaphysical contemplates of the great mysteries of the Divine nature, as in the easy and graceful analysis of the tenderst emotions of the heart". Rev. Pope calls him "the greatest Tamil classic author, who sung of so many topics 'touching all things with poetic grace" and also asserts that "It is not probable that Tiruvalluvar translated a single sloka from Sanskrit. Kural is certainly not an anthology, but the perfect and most elaborate work of one master. The weaver of Mylapore was undoubtedly one of the great geniuses of the world. He is the venerated sage and lawgiver of the Tamil people of whom there are about ten millions inhabiting the central and southern Carnatic", and sings of the author thus.
"Sage Valluvar, priest of thy lowly clan,
No tongue repeats, no speech reveals thy name;
Yet, all things changing, dieth not thy fame,
For thou art bard of universal man."
The religion of Valluvar is a puzzle to this day. Every couplet of his work is tight enough for elaboration into a sermon in any country for any religion. The author bases morality no doubt upon theology. A good or an evil action is a passport to heaven or hell. Even his invocation of the Supreme Being does not give us a clue to his religion. His theology must, therefore, be only natural theology, and his religion only natural religion. Can it be otherwise with the bard who said that "Death is but sleep and birth but an awakening from it" which reminds us of Words worth's line in his ode in Intimations of Immortality.
Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting,
The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star.
Hath had elsewhere its setting
And cometh from a far;
Not in entire forgetfulness
And not is utter nakedness
But trailing clouds of glory do we come
From God who is our home.
Gentlemen, I am not a student of the Theory of morals. I cannot tell you precisely whether the author is an Intuitionist, Perfectionist or Hedonist. I leave the precision for theorists, though I am inclined to call the venerable sage a utilitarian – Perfectionist, on the whole, for he insists on the purity of mind, word and deed, for the happiness of all. Perfection of human nature is the be-all and end-all of Kural.
"In the world there is nothing great but man
In man there is nothing great but mind"
said somebody. Our author would add
In mind there is nothing great but moral perfection.
Is there any body in the world who would raise his voice against the moral perfection of man? What is any religion but a dull sermon on this perfection? The lives of great men and saints are but a commentary on this. A parliament of religions cannot have a better subject for discussion. The summum bonum of Education cannot have any other aspiration. This doctrine of perfection of human nature is the essence of the Ethics of Kural. A study of Sanskrit opened a high road to the region of Philology. A study of Kural may open another to the region of comparative morality, and thus pave a way for the long dreamed Universal brotherhood of man. Before I resume my seat let me make one humble bow to the Prince of Moralists.