SOME STRAY THOUGHTS ON TAMILIAN ANTIQUITIES.
Prof. M. Rangachariar M. A., in a lecture of his delivered under the auspices of the Presidency College Historical Association on the subject of "Dravidian Sociology" and which appeared in the issue of "the Brahma Vadin" for October last, has made the following remarks concerning the Tamilians viz, "Industriously they (the Dravidians) seem to have "been, probably, agricultural; and it is held that "they were well-known to have been tree-worshippers "and, perhaps, also serpent-worshippers. Their "religion seems to have consisted largely in magical "superstition and demonolatry."
1. That the Tamilians of India were agriculturists is a fact which the testimony of modern discoveries has placed beyond the pale of rational doubt. If we can rely on the recent pronouncements of some eminent archaeologists, the ancient Tamilians of India were the leading agricultural nation of the ancient world. It was pointed out by Dr. Caldwell long ago that the people who used "the burial urns" must have been in agricultural race as brass and iron implements of agriculture were often found buried in their graces, and it excited the surprise of Dr. Caldwell that, although these vestiges of ancient graves were found scattered over many parts of India and especially of South India, no mention whatever was made of them in Sanskrit literature. To Dr. Caldwell, Sanskrit was the only literary language of ancient India, and its silence on the subject, therefore, appeared to him remarkable. But there need be no uncertainty now as to the particular people, who made use of urns (ஈமத்தாழி) for burial and who brought into being the Pandu Kulies, cromlechs, tumuli &c, which are to be found in great abundance in all parts of South India – that race being now identified with the ancestors of the present Tamilian races. Even at this day the Tamils have not lost their aptitude for agricultural pursuits which characterized their ancestors. Not many years ago the Director of the Botanical Gardens, Ceylon, reporting on the condition of agriculture in the districts occupied by the Tamils, wrote to the effect that, in the matter of agricultural efficiency' the Tamils of Ceylon were several centuries ahead of their Singhalese follow – subjects. Besides this the ten Idylls of the Madura Sangam describe a highly developed state of agriculture in the countries embraced by the three kingdoms of the South nearly two thousand years ago. In the Mahawansa of the Singhalese we read that, in the kingdom of the Kalinga Tamilians, agriculture was systematically carried on by means of irrigation in the 7th Century B.C. and that the Pandian Princess who became the Queen Consort of King Vijiya I of Ceylon in the 6th Century B. C., was accompanied to Ceylon by 5 sorts tradesmen. With the services of the Panchakammalars at his command for the manufacture of the necessary implements of his profession, the Tamilian agriculturist was an expert in his calling whose superior knowledge of the art was recognized even in countries far beyond the limits of his own. A learned writer in a recent issue of the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Australia maintains that "to India came the Pun voyagers and established "trade for the rice and other things grown by the "Dravidians. Voyagers from India went to Babylonia "by way of the Persian Gulf. These are known in "their traditions as Ea-Khan or Oannies (Vannis "வன்னியர்?) subsequently deified as fish-god. He "sailed from Dvaraka. The Dravidians in North India were the ancient cultivators of rice" – Another writer in an issue also of the same Journal boldly asserts "that the traditions of the pre-historic times are "receiving constant confirmations by the recent discoveries, none can doubt; and these assert that Indian "trading went on from Dwaraka and other settlement "near the mouth of the Indus. The prehistoric "traditions say that Ea-khan came up his ark or vessel "across the Persian gulf and taught the early Babylonians their arts and culture." The above lines which I have quoted at length from a leading scientific journal are sufficient to contradict and refute the late Dr. Caldwell's theory that the ancient Tamils owed all their knowledge of the superior arts and branches of learning to the Aryas. Had the learned Doctor been alive today he would have seen how baseless and invalid many of his conclusions are regarding the ancient civilization of the South Indian races, in the light of modern discoveries. He could have also found out to his great surprise that "the race who made the elegant and richly glossed "potteries, the implements of iron, the representations of processions with musical instruments and led horses rudely sculptured on the side of the cromlechs, all of which denoting a civilization "among them superior to that of the Celts" were none but the ancestors of the present Tamilian races. (Vide Comparative Grammar). "It is necessary to suppose", the learned doctor goes on to say, "that they "(the authors of the pottery &c) kept themselves "separate from the various races that entered India "subsequently and that they imitated the civilization of the newer immigrants without abandoning their peculiarities." How well these remarks accord with facts only those acquainted with the character of the Tamils can understand. The unobtrusive obstinacy and conservatism of the Tamilian races must be patent to any careful observer of their ways and customs. Indeed it is this peculiar characteristic of this ancient race that has successfully withstood so many waves of foreign invasions and influences and even to the present day has preserved many old traits and features in society, religion and politics that now serve to the diligent inquirer as a torch to light up their prehistoric connections and practices. When the flood and the ants have done their work, it is not a little satisfactory to the historic inquirer to find ample elements of the race in their conservation and obstinacy, which added to time, have only tended to fossilise their ancient manners and customs.
If the Ea-khan of the Babylonian monuments was a Tamilian, we may, I think, identify that name with the
இயக்கன் of the Tamil, and the Yaksha or Yakka of the Sinhalese historians. The deification of Yakkan by the Babylonians as the Fish God and the symbol of fish adopted by the Pandian of Madura (மனவன்) as his Royal Emblem are points worthy of special note.
That the Tamilians of India had made very great strides in the direction of agricultural enterprise even in the Vedic times, the only Tamil poem of the age of the Mahabharata war preserved to us in a compilation of the Madura Sangam proves beyond the shadow of a doubt. I refer to the complimentary and eulogistic poem addressed to the great Chera king Uthiyan (உதயன்) on his return from the field of Kurukshethiram by a royal port of the times named "the crowned Naga king" of the country of Murinchi who is believed to have flourished in the times of the First Sangam.
The poem above referred to is included in the Sangam Work entitled Purra Nanuru (புற
நானூறு) and sings the praises of a Chera monarch who supplied rations of rice to both the contending armies in the Mahabharata War for all the eighteen days of the fight. If we can rely on the authenticity and genuineness of this poem no more evidence would seem to be necessary to establish the fact that even so early as the Vedic times the cultivation of paddy was carried on, on no small scale on this side of the Vindya Mountains and that the field of Kurushetram lay not so far away in the North as is now generally believed but somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Chera Kingdom perhaps in Mysore.
II. But however advanced in the Arts of peace or of war the ancient Dravidians were, they are nevertheless held to have been, says Professor Rangachariar, tree-worshippers and probably serpent worshippers. The sources of this information the professor has not disclosed, but as far as Tamil Literature goes, I believe that such opinions about the ancient Tamilians rest on no foundation whatever in the extant national writings. I am aware that the races were called Nagas were, according to the historians of Ceylon, in occupation of parts of Ceylon and of India about the time of Gautama Buddha whom (the Nagas) some modern scholars consider to have been snake worshippers; the reason they give for this opinion being nothing more than a conjecture based on the meaning which is now commonly attached to the word "Naga". The Naga races were very probably Tamilians, but the imputation to them of serpent worship rests on no better foundation whatever, than their name. It is worthy of notice that the royal poet of Murinchioor to whom I have already referred is called also the Naga King of Murinchioor (முரிஞ்சியூர்
நாகராயர்). This is an instance in which a Tamilian prince and poet has been called a Naga King.
Again, Mr. Wilson has pointed out (Vide Madras Journal of Science and Literature) that, in the Northern recension of the Maha Bharata the king whose daughter Arjuna married and whom the traditions and the literature of South India identify with a Pandian King is also called the Naga King of Manipur. Mr. Wilson's objections to the identification of the dynasty of Manipur with the dynasty to which the Pandians of Madura belonged have all been disposed of by Dr. Oppert and I hardly need therefore spend time on them, although I am of opinion that the original seat of the Pandian Dynasty should be sought for, not in the neighbourhood of the old city of Madura, as Dr. Oppert thought, but somewhere in the further north on the banks of the River Tungabhadra. From these instances in which the term Naga has been applied to the Tamilians Kings, the inference only naturally flows that a section at least of the ancient Tamilians were known by the name Naga which, in later days, when its original meaning was lost or forgotten, was interpreted to signify "serpents" giving rise, in course of time, to the notion of the existence of races from serpents in some quarters and of serpent worship in others. What then is the real origin of the name Naga as applied to the ancestors of the modern Tamilians? It certainly must not be sought for in foolish conjectures. In ancient times it was the custom to consider the kings as the descendants of the Gods they worshipped. So Manu the progenitor of the solar dynasty was called the son of the Sun-God. We are also told that the Chief God of the Ancient Egyptians was called Ra, the sun, and that the kings of Egypt called themselves sons of Ra and claimed Divine descent. May it not be supposed that, in like manner, the name of Naga by which the ancient Dravidians were known had also some connection with the name of some deity they adored? The following lines quoted from a scientific Journal would seem to me to settle the origin of the name Naga once and for all. "The Su race held Su-shan (Elam;) "their chief God was Susi-nag represented by a star in the sky. They were of the Ugro-finnic stock; - "Na hushas the sons of Naga or the serpent of the pole star were the Dravidians." We also find in the genealogical table of the Tamil kings of the South preserved in the Mahabharatha Hari-Vamsa and other Puranas, the name Nahusha occurs as that of one of the earliest kings of the dynasty. The earliest symbol under which men worshipped God was that of a star and this is supported also by the scriptures of the Hebrews which say that men began to worship "the host of the heavens." The word Nagan very probably meant in the primitive times, nothing more than God and hence Nagar came to mean also Devas. That the religion of the early Tamils had much to do with the worship of the Devas is also evident from the appellation of the Deva-alayam invariably given to the temples of the Tamils by the early Sinhalese writers.
I am not unaware of the fact that serpents are regarded with feelings of veneration in many parts of Malayalam. The history of the place ascribes the origin of the cult to local causes and the serpent Kavoos of Malayalam cannot therefore, be said to establish the existence of the cult in all the Dravidas at one time. It may also be pointed out that once the original signification of the word Naga was forgotten by the masses the only alternative for them would have been to understand it in the modern vulgar acceptation of the term, and when once the error has crept into the popular mind the power of words over men's minds is so great that all that is involved in the mistaken interpretation was bound to realise itself in practice. The great dread in which serpents are held in countries infected with them would also help the growth of the cult in ill-instructed minds as a means of conciliating and pacifying the dangerous reptile.
With reference to the subject of the "tree worship" which the ancestors of the Tamilians have been credited with the truth is not anything more than what is involved in the feelings of interest which a Buddhist evinces towards the Banyan tree. I suppose that nobody ever made as imputation of tree worship to the Buddhists of Ceylon or of any other country on account of the intense interest they take in the Bo-tree of Anuradhapura or any other Buddhist shrine.
The remarks of Mr. Ranga chariar on other points only echo the sentiments of the late Dr. Caldwell when he says their worship consisted largely in superstition and demonolatry. I am sorry the Professor has not discussed if the views of the Doctor can be taken to be wholly correct. The doctor besides his opinion on the demonolatry and superstition of the Dravidians, has gone further when he identifies them with the Turanian or the Ugro – altaic family of races on the supposed affinity he found between them in language and religion. But we know that the Doctor's theory connecting the Tamilians with the Turanians or the Ugro-Altaic family cannot stand any more in as much as every day fresh investigations show clearly that the mode of classifying the Tamilians, the Babylonians, the ancient Accadians, the Hungarians, the Finns and other collateral tribes under the head Turanian is quite unscientific and unsatisfactory. When we see the remarkable resemblances in language and religion between the Tamilians on the one hand, and the Finns, the Babylonians, and the Accadians on the other, we must conclude that these must be scientifically classed under a quite independent head which we shall be named the Tamilian. As for instance it is remarkable, indeed that though occupying religions widely separated for ages the title by which the Finns call their great national heroic poems (viz Kalavela) should happen to be nearly the same as that by which Poikayar's (பொய்கையார்) heroic poem on Kochchengannan (கோச்செங்கண்ணன்) is at present known among us viz. Kalavali (களவழி)? What wonderful vitality must this word possess to have survived the lapse of centuries of linguistic political and national revolutions and catastrophies? From the latest researches scholars have found that the Sumirian language in which the oldest Babylonian inscriptions appear written belong to this group of tongues and that the Finns are the descendants of the ancient Su – race. According to some authorities, the Cushites who were the greatest navigators and builders of the ancient world gave origin to the Accadians of Babylonia by inter-marriage with the Su-merian. Thus the linguistic affinities which the present languages of South India are found to bear to the su-merians and the prevalence from very ancient times up to the present day among the Tamilians of practices which are well known to have been in vogue among the Accadians of old Babylonia would seem to place the theory of the racial identity of the ancient Tamilians with the Sumero-Cushites of antiquity on an unshakeable basis. "The earliest cults of Babylonia and those of the world were those of Accad and Sumer but these were made up of magic, sorcery, witchcraft, astrology, star-worship, deification of ancestors, heroes and rulers, until as time passed on, their religion settled into a theology and adoration, of their Gods" (Science of Man August 1901). How well do these lines portray the state of religion among the Tamilians of the present day. Even now the practice of sorcery, magic and other black arts has such a hold on the minds of the masses that whereas, most of the literary monuments of antiquity have been allowed to perish, the comparatively worthless works on sorcery and the like have been preserved with the utmost carefulness in many a household. Never was I more impressed with this fact than when during a search I made for some rare manuscripts which were reported to have been in the possession of one of my ancestors about 150 years ago, I was given to understand that the only manuscripts which had been considered worthy of preservation were those on witchcraft, necromancy and other Manthrams.
Even in the matter of star worship and hero worship, the nations of South India have proved themselves to be either the progenitors or the lineal descendants of the Accadians of Chalden. The worship of the Pandavas and Draupadi prevails even at this day in most Districts of South India and among the Tamils of the Eastern Province in Ceylon. There are "koils" even now in the District of Tinnevelly in which divine honours are given to the Pandian of Madura. Mr. Taylor has endeavoured to show that the shrine of Sundareswaran in Madura had its origin in the feelings of admiration which the early Tamilians entertained of the military exploits of Arjunan who married a princess of Madura, and other writers of no inferior abilities have even gone further in this direction and maintained that the principal deities of the Vedic pantheon were of South India origin and represent the deified ancestors of the southerners. The worship of the planets and especially of Aditiya (Surya) is still largely indulged in by all sections of the Saivite Tamils. It is, however far beside the truth to say that the early Tamilians had no conception of any higher forms of religion than those mentioned above. We know how in the present day the grossest Fetishism exists side by side with the most abstruse systems of philosophy in India and that this was also the case in ancient Dravida is made more than probable if not proved by the fact that the worship of a personal God or monotheism had its origin, not in the Impersonal Brahman of the Pantheistic Aryans but in the Saktaic cults founded by the Akkaddiyans of India and of which the Tamilian Akadiyar (அகத்தியர்) and Naradar were the foremost expounders in South India.
III. Finally, the theory of Mr. Ranga Chariar that the Pulayar (Pariahs) of South India are descendants of the slaves of the early Dravidians seem untenable as it fails to explain certain important circumstances connected with the problem. I am aware that the Pulayar of Jaffna persistently claim for their ancestors a status in society even higher than that now claimed by the priestly class and instances are not wanting in which Pulayar even refused to eat in a Brahman's house alleging that in olden days a Pulayar never treated Brahman on terms of equality. The Pulayar's mind would indeed seem to be so much saturated with the recollection of his ancient glories that the proverb
தவன்பறையன், is ever on his lips when he has taken just a drop too much. If I have stated any unpleasant facts I have done so not with any evil intention of casting any slur on any class or clan, but with a view to helping the construction of a correct history of South India. An eminent American scholar who was for many years a resident of Jaffna is credited with having remarked to some caste Hindus of the place that if the average facial angle of the several classes was accepted as affording an index of comparative development, the Pulayans of Jaffna, though subjected to a state of degradation for centuries, would have the best of it. The following lines of Dr. Oppert are full of significance when viewed in this connection. "If the Pulayas are the descendants of the aborigines and if Pulathya Ravana was the "master of Lanka and of South India, the startling similarly between Pulathiya and Pulaya is easily explained," and may I ad that if evidence is daily accumulating in favour of the theory of the racial identity of the primitive Tamilians with the Accadiyans of Chaldea the startling similarity between Accad, the name of the great son of Kush and Acathiyar (akkadiyar) the most prominent Tamilian of pre-aryan India is also easily explained. The hatred which the Pulayan has inherited from his ancestors towards the Brahman and his institutions is inveterate and any theory which does not take this fact into account must therefore he deemed distinctly unsatisfactory. Nothing short of some historical event of antiquity with which the Pulayan's present state of degradation is connected would seem to explain his traditional hostile attitude towards the Aryan priest. The researchers in the field of anthropology would appear to strongly support this view of the matter. The primitive Aryan, it is said, on their entrance into the valley of the Ganges, found it occupied by a flat or broad nosed race with whom they were afterwards constantly at war. Modern researchers in the direction of the nasal measurements of the different races of Southern India have disclosed the fact that while the average nasal index of a Vellala or Brahman of South India is about 91, the nasal index of a Tamil Pariah and of a Kadir is not less than 105 and 110 respectively.
The present Pariah population, the Kadir, Irular, and other hill tribes of South India may, therefore, be taken to represent the descendants of the flat nosed races of ancient India, who were the inveterate enemies of the early Aryans. The feelings of hatred and of contempt which the Pulayan still bears to his original oppressors need therefore no further explanation. May not the eighteen castes of South India represent the eighteen Gunas of the
Riku Veda rather than the remains of the races whom the forefathers of the Dravidians had reduced to slavery?
V. J. T. Pillai.