First Tantra – The Upadesa.
1. Descending from the astral planes and getting a body according to his Karma, man receives the impress of God’s grace. Entering his heart, God melts him into incomparable Love, and directing his intellect, removes his sin.
It is one of the cardinal doctrines of the Advaita-siddhanta that salvation is only possible in the plane of the earth: Cf. Tiruvachaka,
See the Theosophical Review for February and March, where Mr. Arthur A. Wells carries on a discussion on this subject.
2. He removed our sins, Our Nandi with the Frontal Eye.
He removed our sins, by opening our Eye of Love.
Lightening us with the Light that no darkness can dim,
He reflected His Cora. Light in the Crystal.
The word களிம்பு, rust in copper or crystal or mirror, is significant. The impurity attaching to man is no part of his true nature but it nevertheless affects him, covers and limits his power as a veil. The analogy given for man is the crystal or mirror பளிங்கு, which, however pure in itself, has the defect of becoming covered by rust, and ‘the Light that no darkness can dim’ is distinguished from this ‘crystal’ and the author also shows that the Light in the crystal is not its own but is really the Ruddy Light of the Lord and it is compared most beautifully to the coral imbedded in this crystal. The real sparks emitted from the so-called Brilliant answer to this.
See note to sixth Chapter, ‘Light of Grace’ and Prof. Henry Drummond’s tract “Changed Life” where he brings out the truth of the proposition that man is a ‘mirror’ and shows how in this nature of man lies the basis of the process of man’s salvation. As the Mantra shows, man’s darkness will vanish more and more, as he reflects God’s glory, and as he reflects His Glory, perfectly, he becomes perfect himself. ‘I see God, ‘I reflect God,’ ‘I become God’, are the several stages of this process of attaining Pathignanam, Cf. Svetas Up.
“From meditating of Him, from joining Him, from becoming one with Him, there is further cessation of all maya (bodies-births)”, i. 10.
“As a metal disk (mirror), tarnished by dust, shines bright again after it has been cleaned, so is the one incarnate person satisfied and freed from grief, after he has seen the real nature of himself.”
“And by the real nature of his self, he sees as by a lamp the real nature of Brahman; then, having known the unborn eternal Lord, who transcends all the tattvas, he is freed from all fetters (pasa).” Ii. 14 and 15.
“We, all, with unveiled face, reflecting, as a mirror, the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image, from Glory to Glory, even as from the Lord, the spirit.”
The opening lines of the Chapter on Upadesa, - ‘the teaching,’ – fitly enough summaries how and why man is born and how his salvation is secured.
3. Of the three Padarthas described as pathi (God) pasu (bound soul) and pasa (the bond), the two last are equally eternal as God himself. The impurities (பசு பாசம்) cannot approach God, and, if God approaches man, his impurities will vanish.
Man unaided cannot near God, but, aided but His Arul, he can near Him and thus get rid of his impurities.
4. Nandi dwells in the Temple of man and his body as the light shining from the bamboo rods (by friction).
Like unto our mother, He removes our three impurities and rises out us as the sun from the Ocean of Grace.
This explains the method of salvation.
Cf. (1) Thevaram,
விறகிற்றியினன் பாவிற் படுநெய்போல்
உறவுகோல் நட்டுணர்வு கயிற்றினான்
முறுகவாங்கிக் கடைய முன்னிற்குமே
(2) Svetasvatara Upanishad. i. 14.
“By making his body the under-wood and the syllable Om the upper-wood, man, after repeating the drill of meditation, will perceive the Bright God like the spark hidden in the wood.”
(3) Kaivalyaopanishad. 13.
“With the soul for the wood (arani) and Pranava for the churning rod, by the continual churning of knowledge the wise sunder the noose (pasa).
5. Take the case of the solar lens and cotton covering it. The lens by itself cannot burn the cotton. It will be burnt when brought into focus with the sun. So, man’s impurities are burnt off in the presence of the Divine Teacher.
Man is the lens or crystal and cotton covering it is the impurity and God is the sun.
Cf. Svetas. Up. iii. 8.
“I know that Parama Purusha of sunlike lustre, beyond darkness. A man who knows Him truly passes over death. There is no other path to go.”
6. He knows our impurities to be five, and he removes them from his eminent fifth position as Sadasiva, and, washing us out of our five passions in the sacred Hall, imparts us his five graces and lovingly dwells in us.
7. As a thing lost in the depths of water, our intelligence is submerged in the five senses. But, when our intelligence is lost in His knowledge, the Supreme Teacher will bring our light out.
“ஆணவத்தோடு அத்துவிதமானபடி மெய்ஞ்ஞானத்
8. If one alone, all alone, reaches the Hall of Silence, like the Hamsa, which separates milk from water, then can he burn up the seed of birth derived by his dwelling with the evil senses.
The comparison to the Hamsa is to the Hamsa or Soham or Sivoham practice ordained for the yogi, and the next Mantra makes it plainer. It also means the yogi ascending alone after separating himself from the senses.
9. The Siva yogis are they who burn up their seed, pass beyond the waking states &c., and reach the Turyatitha, and, freeing themselves of all bonds, are dead to the flesh, though living in union with the body and the senses.
10. Discriminating between chit and chit, and practicing Tapas and Yoga and entering one’s own light is Siva Yoga.
Nandi gave us graciously the nine modes of Siva Bhoga Yoga, so that we may not fall into wrong paths.
11. He gave us to know the Truth “I am all the world.”
He gave us the World not known to the Devas.
He gave us the Foot dancing in the Sacred Hall.
He led us into the silent space of Supreme Bliss.
12. They are Siva Sidhars who attain clearness like akas merging in akas, light merging in light, and air merging in air.
13. They are Siddhars who can see Sivaloka in this world. They realize Nadha and Nadhandha in themselves. They become eternal, Nirmala, Niramaya and Supreme Muktars. The soul reaching bliss has to ascend 36 steps.
14. Ascending the thirty and six rungs of the ladder and entering the Light of Incomparable Bliss and beholding the unspeakable Sivam and attaining clearness, they rest there as even Sivam.
15. They rest there becoming Sivam, and becoming all, they rest there realizing that all is God.
They rest there knowing the Past, the Present, and the Future.
When resting there, they lose themselves and become idle.
The words சோம்பு and சோம்பர் translated ‘idle’ and ‘idler’ are derived from the word “சும்மா” doing nothing. As applied to the yogis attaining the Highest Place of Peace, the words can convey no reproach. Of course, we cannot understand its meaning and no wonder.
“சும்மா யிரு சொல்லற வென்றலுமே
அம்மா பொருளொன்று மறிந்திலனே.”
16. Where the idlers dwell is the pure Space.
Where the idlers sport is the pure Light.
What the idlers know is the Vedanta.
What the idlers find is the Sleep therein.
The Vedanta is the Yoga Pada or Marga as distinguished from the Siddhanta or Gnana-Marga or Gnana Pada. See Introduction to Kaivalyopanioshad. P. 199, Vol. II of this Magazine.
17. They slept and in themselves realized Siva Loka.
They slept and in themselves realized Siva Yoga.
They slept and in themselves realized Siva Bhoga.
They slept and how can we realize their Sleep?
18. If one recognizes his own limitations, so far will the First One give him grace.
In the incomparable Hall, in the red glare of the twilight sky, in the Presence of Uma, danced and glowed that sparkling Gem.
19. In the Gem was imbedded that emerald Light. In the Gem was placed the emerald Hall. What great bliss was not secured by the loving worship of the sacred dance in that Hall of pure gold?
20. They gained the only true path of the world; they gained the great boon of not being born in the world; they gained the great boon of not being separated from the Golden Hall; they gained the greatness of losing converse with the world.
21. Who like our Lord will know the merits and demerits of each and bestow His grace accordingly? In contact with the world, the great, like the tortoise, withdrew their five senses into themselves and losing both good and bad Karma become freed of evil.
22. The ‘small still voice’ of the teacher will be heard in the mind that becomes still like the wave less sea. Even as the ghee is present in the uncurdled milk, when all speech and thought and feeling is lost, the untarnished light will mingle in us, making us Sat.
23. When the soul leaves the senses and sensations to depart their own way, this chit has not other place but I Chit. In the pure Akas, the Light will mingle in Light. Understand the truth even from the illustration of water.
We are not to go as the senses guide us. When we leave their guidance, they leave us and we land ourselves in God as the ripe fruit detaches itself from the stalk and reaches the ground.
Cf (1) Sivagnanabotha. “பாசங்களன்றாற்பசுவுக்கிடம்பதியாம்.”
(2) Mundaka Up. 1, 2, 9.
In the Highest Golden Sheath (Hiranmaya Parakosha,) there is the Brahman, without passion (Nishkala) and without parts. That is Pure that is the Light of Light.
(3) Chand. 8, 3, 4.
“Now that serene being who, after having risen from this earthly body and having reached the Highest Light (Paranjyoti, Parasakti,) appears in God’s true form.
24. What tastes sharp in water gets converted by the sun’s heat into a form called salt. This salt will become one with water when again thrown into water. So also, the Jiva merges in Sivam.
25. This explains how the world of atoms entering the great Worlds yet require no room. The souls dwelling in various bodies have their final goal in the Foot of the changeless One.
26. This Foot, when well thought out, is Sivam. This Foot is Siva Loka. This foot is the final goal. This Foot is the last shelter.
27. Knowledge consists in seeing the Guru.
Knowledge consists in uttering His name.
Knowledge consists in hearing His words.
Knowledge consists in meditating His form.
28. If one alone meets our Lord.
The senses themselves will be controlled by him.
The senses will depart of their own accord.
The senses will change their course away from us.
29. We reach the beautiful feet of Nandi.
We meditate the beautiful form of Nandi.
We adore with words the name of Nandi.
We place in our heart the golden feet of Nandi.
30. They became holy by placing in their intellect our Holy Nandi who imparts intelligence. They see the Dance of our Lord with glad eyes, and reach Heaven receiving the praises of the Vedas.
INSTABILITY OF THE BODY.
1. Lo! This body of good and evil, compounded of the earth, it appeared solid and reached the fire; when the rains fell on it, it became earthy, so numberless men do perish.
2. The false roof of the body falling down from age, the women and children, who ate out of him will not follow. Except the tapas and knowledge which he acquired, nothing else will follow him close.
3. The whole city gathered and cried aloud; they removed his name and called him a corpse; they took and burnt him in the burning ground; they bathed themselves and clean forgot him.
4. This body has two posts, one top beam and 32 cross bamboos, the top thatch is removed, the breath departs, the departing breath cannot enter it back.
5. The breath became difficult, the frame was loosened. The frame was old and the spirit departed; they wondered – and renounced the body, they threw handfuls of rice to the rooks.
6. They ate the food that was newly cooked, they took the pleasures of life in the company of one to me; they felt the twitching’s of the eyelids they took to their beds and died straightway.
7. Our chief raised a palace in the city square, our chief rode on a palanquin in the public squares. Our chief distributed 3 crores in charity in the public squares. Yet he never went after and sought our Father.
8. The match was discussed and the marriage accomplished, love was initiated and altogether forgot; they cried over his body and placed it on the bier, the milk food was cooked and offered in sacrifice.
9. The pulsation ceased, the mind was destroyed and the body broken, the five senses fattening on ghee food fled, they left the body leaving behind, women and gold, beautiful as though taking leave.
10. The Pandal was taken down and the treasure house dismantled, all the nine gates were closely shut, the sorrowing hour was flying fast, the loving relations cried and departed, Lo!
11. The Lord of our country, chief of our city, is carried in the funeral palanquin away with the people following it behind and the drums beating in front.
12. The 96 tatvas dwell in the well-built castle; all these take to their heels, when the castle is destroyed.
13. Leaving behind him his wealth and buildings and the sweet wife, he rides to the common burning ground in a car, and people depart leaving him alone there.
14. Even though they see the bodies perish, yet they love the body thinking that it won’t perish. Their desires form the seed of a new birth and follow them. So are they wearied ever disgracefully.
15. The clamoring relations and females and children leave off at the city limits. The unjust put the corpse on the funeral pyre laid with firewood freed from roots, fire it and bathe in a pool of water.
16. In the whole world, the pots which the potter makes with fine earth, if broken, will be preserved at least as a potsherd. But if the body perishes, it won’t be kept in the house even for a moment.
17. This horse has 5 heads and 6 manes and 30 joints and 18 tethering posts and 15 stables and nine sheds. It fell down burnt and we know not what happened after.
18. They prepared a nice porridge of figs and flour of seeds of greens. They hurried to partake of this food and lo! they died.
19. There is no roof above nor well prepared floor below. It has two legs (posts) and one beam. It is very nicely thatched but it is all now white cinder only.
20. The body is laid out in the outer court, the home is not adorned. They wail in song all about his wealth, welfare, and past greatness and finish by burning the body in fire.
21. The egg was hatched in 300 days. In the twelfth year, he got married and in his 70th year he died. Except this record, did you hear of his charity, ye poor mortals.
22. They bewail, those fools, that won’t understand that the lamp must burn out when the oil is exhausted. They fall down in anguish who could not learn from the world falling into darkness after day break.
23. He did not worship with his body and soul. The Lord of Maya crowned with konrai flowers, Him who gave him his body and life; and he has gone to the seventh hell to suffer; and these call on him so that their bowels may burst.
24. They live really with umbrellas, horses and swords and in the midst of their glory they pass away, their life passing to the right.
25. What, oh, does it matter that this body become eaten by ravens, or disgraced by onlookers on the way side, after the actor who is enclosed in the skin performing the various acts of our life, leaves it empty.
INSTABILITY OF WEALTH.
1. Before others ease us of our kingdom and fortune, cars and elephants, and of our humanity, if with clear vision, we can adore Iswara, we can reach Him easily indeed.
2. The evil begetting fortune which is like the waning dark moon, let us never speak of. Think of the God of gods without doubt and our riches will increase like a rain cloud.
3. Lo, these poor men! They see that their own shadows do not serve them, yet they believe their gold to be their own. Know that when the life departs, the body and the eye and eyesight equally perish.
4. The bees seek the fragrant flowers, collect the honey and deposit it in a tree. Beings more powerful than the bees drive them away and rob the honey. The Bees give it up after discovering their board to others. So it will be with men and their fortune.
5. Let me exhort you, attain to clear vision; after attaining to clearness, don’t get muddled again. Let not the flood of wealth disturb and discolor you. Throw away your wealth and don’t look back on it. Then you can meet the king of death boldly.
6. They know not that like the lotus placed in the tumbling waters, joyous wealth and gold and the budding body are placed together as in a nutshell just to wean one from the world.
7. Your wife and children and brothers will each claim your great wealth as their own. If you can distribute it in life in charity we can speak of a sure help to you when you have need for it.
8. Your body is full of desires; will any body offer a price for exits. After your parents and relations have come round and worshipped, they will leave your body and go.
9. If renouncing everything, people’s minds will dwell on the gracious Lord, at the time of death, they will not even feel the hot breath of the messengers of Yama.
INSTABILITY OF YOUTH.
1. How blind they are not to know, even from the fact, that the sun rising from the east sets in the west. They see the strong calf become a bull and die old, and yet they learn not.
2. Many a year is passing away. Yet they would not approach our Father and enter into Him. Suppose the years are indefinitely increased, how long will the lamp last which is constantly trimmed.
3. Youth is dying out. Our clearly defined duties remain to be fulfilled. While there is time, think of the Nandi with braided hair, in which Ganges is concealed, and reach Him.
4. The soft-hued damsels would love me before like the sweet juice of the sugarcane. I was like the sugarcane to these flower like damsels, and not I am bitter fruit to them.
5. They see not that one ages from childhood to youth and from youth to old age. I desire more and more the Feet of the Supreme One transcending all the worlds.
6. They get up in the morning, day by day, they go to bed in the evening and they waste their days. The unchangeable Lord will give bliss to those who think of Him.
7. The big needles are enclosed in a bag (human body). From this tree (human body) fly out these five needles. If these five needles are touched by dew, the bag enclosing five needles will also fly away.
8. They know not that Vishnu and the sun measure the age of the world. They who go to the world of the gods and karmic worlds die away after the age of thirty.
9. They pause not even after seeing the decay of the 16 kinds of kalas. After the furious king of Death has measure their age they will reach hell and will not quench their thirst.
10. While you are in your youth, praise the Lord with song. While there was yet time, I saw the Vision Pure without wasting my time.
INSTABILITY OF LIFE.
1. Knowing well that all that are borne on a leafy flower – laden bough die without fail, they do not praise our Lord’s Feet without fault. They know not that king Yama is awaiting to send for them.
2. The five (senses) own a full grown field. The five guard this field. The five having received the mandate of the Lord, they relinquish their watch of this field.
3. There is a drum with two faces and the five kings dwell in it. When the five kings depart from it, the drum falls to dust.
4. They who cannot realize the Lord of Tiruvenkatam and the Dweller in the heart of the Vedanta, the Nandi who dances in Tiruvenkatam, cannot realize even their soul and cannot bear their life.
5. They do not understand that the 10 sides of this world are measured by the Sun. They do not pause and understand the illusion of this world.
6. People do not understand that even the well-known girdle us torn to shreds and the black hair turns to grey. From birth to death appears just like a single year.
7. Only a little rice is required to boil a pot. Give a little rice in charity before ever your body is burnt. The allotted days are almost over.
8. Even though you fondly seek and dwell on this life of yours, as the bee hovers on the sweetness of the flower; yet your life cannot last unless fixed on Him with the Three Lights for His Eyes.
9. Perform charity according to the Law. Praise the Pure One, in view to reach that great land. We need not give any law to those who know how difficult it is to get a human birth.
10. Do not leave the path of virtue, becoming envious. Don’t covet other people’s property, becoming avaricious. While you are prosperous just give to others and eat yourself.
ABSTENTION FROM KILLING.
1. The sacred flower to be used in the Pujah of the Guru is abstaining from killing animals. The Deepam to be offered is your removing the animal’s fear. The real Dhyana will consist in your doing good to them.
2. The cruel messengers of Yama will bund them who direct the beating and killing animals, with strong ropes, and drive them with insulting words into the burning Hell.
ABSTENTION FROM EATING MEAT.
1. The messengers of Yama will publicly catch hold of those low people who eat meat, and throw them into the burning Hell.
2. Those who abstain from killing, thieving, drinking intoxicating liquors, lust, and lying, will be freed from evil and reach the bliss of Siva’s Foot. This is reaching the Highest Gnanananda.
1. While the loving wife is at home, he who goes after a woman guarded by another is like the man who incurs sorrow by going after date fruits, without eating the jack fruit at home.
2. Burying the sweet mango fruit grown by oneself under the earth like gold, one gets up the tree to pluck the sour mango fruit. This man loses the benefit of his existence.
3. They go after woman in the darkest night when stars above shine. Then cannot rid themselves of their mental darkness.
4. Even though the leaves may be shining, the fruit of the strychnine tree cannot be good for food. Don’t therefore, let your mind hanker after women though they may be beautiful and smiling.
5. They enter houses in search of women. Their gushing love is unreal like a dream and the bubbles in a whirling pool of water. Don’t think it real.
6. The women will ask their most intimate lovers, to stand apart when others approach them; and they will talk to them in secret and let them go.
7. The effect of one’s having mixed with women is found in the diseases the body has acquired. What was at first as sweet as the sugar-cane juice is now stinging him like a furious serpent.
8. If we do not take hold of those who get themselves entangled among the weeds of vice covering the Tank, they will surely be drowned and lost.
புடவை கிழிந்தது போயிற்று வாழ்க்கை
நடையில்லை நாட்டிலியங்குகின்றார்களே. (1)
Their clothes are torn, their welfare gone
The love of kindred is also gone.
No giving, no taking, and no joyous deed
Lifeless on earth, they pass indeed.
1. This stanza describes in graphic terms the signs and effects of poverty.
அக்குழிதூரும் அழுக்கற்றபோதே. (2)
Dawn, Dawn Ye cry, the belly to fill
Rare food seek ye, false bag to fill
Praise God at least when this is done
When dirt is removed, hunger is won.
2. You go unceasingly after rare articles of food for filling that false pit. (Hunger) But if you praise the Lord, and leave off covetousness, this pit can be filled up at once.
They would seek Gold from mountain Hole
No one can fill this harder Hole
To fill this thirst, wisdom is secured
This thirst is filled, from fault he is cured
3. Cf. the Sacred Kural.
வேண்டாமையன்ன விழுச்செல்வம் மீண்டில்லை
There is no greater wealth than desirelessness
There is never anything like this.
அவாவில்லார்க்கு இல்லாகும் துன்பமஃதுண்டேற்
துடர்ந்து நின்றவ்வழி தூர்க்கலுமாமே. (4)
Worse than karma is one’s near kin,
Before this rare breath flees away,
One melts and lights the lamp of gnan
Sure he can bridge the long pathway.
4. Cf. the Sacred Kural.
Desire the desire of Him who is desire less
அறுத்தனர் ஆறினும் மானின்மேவி
வெறுத்தனன் ஈசனை வேண்டிநின்றானே. (5)
Freed from the six, freed from the five
Mahat’s Products; freed from endless pain,
Killing karma, and hating life
Stands he wrapt in Isa’s Praise.
5. The six are Kama, krodha &c; the five are the five senses, all these resulting from one’s bodily bondage, formed out of Mahat or Prakriti.
AGNIKARYA OR FIRE SACRIFICE.
வசையில் விழுப்பொருள் வானுநிலனுந்
அசைவிலா அந்தணர் ஆகுதிவேட்கிலே.
The spotless, matchless heavens, earth and air,
the Disas, and the gods of the Disas,
the victorious Vedas, will all prosper,
when the Brahmans stead-fast in mind offer sacrifice.
Our Saint gives here the esoteric significance of Fire Sacrifice, in the light of Yoga; and in fact identifies it with Yoga. The first requisite of the Hotar or Yogi is given here as being steadied or stead-fast in mind, having fully controlled his senses. The Tamil word Anthanar used here, means like the word Brahman itself, a knower of God, a seer, a yogi, and is used similarly by Saint Tiruvalluvar, and also to denote the Supreme Brahman. ‘அந்தணர்என்போர் அறவோர்’ ‘அறவாழியந்தணன்’ Saint Tirumular, uses the same word as meaning Supreme Brahman also,
The Brahmans offering oblations to reach
The Path (gati), eat and drink in secret.
Following the law, they reach the true path,
From such knowledge, they reach the Highest.
The oblation offered in sacrifice symbolize the sacrifice of the Self, Aham in man, his Ahamkara and Mamakara which forms his individuality and divides him from Supreme Self, his body and senses, the animal portion of the Soul. This is also the Naivethyam food, offered in the Temples, தற்போதக்கவனம் the food of Pasu Bhoda. What our Lord likes most to be offered is this bad portion of ourselves, and in return, He gives is His Supreme Bliss.
தந்ததுன்றன்னைக் கொண்டதென் தன்னைச்
யெந்தையே யீசா உடலிடங்கொண்டாய்
It was Thyself Thou didst give and me Thou didst take
Beneficent Lord, who is the gainer?
Endless Bliss have I gained. What hast Thou gained from me?
O Lord That had made my heart Thy Temple, Siva
Dweller in the Holy Shrine
O Father, Sovereign, Thou hast made Thy abode in my body.
For it I have naught to give it in return.
(P. A’s translation).
This is the poison which the Supreme Siva swallowed, and giving His own ambrosia, amrita for us to eat and drink.
O Thou, The limitless amrita; The king with the resplendent spear.
The giver of knowledge, can I speak of this Thy grace?
The ‘I’ of myself Thou didst swallow, and
Alone Thou stoodest, The Lord Supreme.
This ambrosia is the Soma drink by the Sacrificer and seer the moon of verse five, and is the Bliss of Soma (Sa+uma) or Somaskanda, enjoyed in Yoga. The word ‘amrita’, usually translated as immortal in the Upanishads is a synonym for Soma or Siva. The Pasu Bhoda is the Aja or Goat or Pasu referred to in verse five also.
That this fire sacrifice is the Gnana Yoga and not a material one is shown by the last two verses. Compare Chandogya Up. I. 1.10.
“The sacrifice which a man performs with Gnana, faith and Yoga is more powerful. This is the full account of the Syllable Om.”
அணைதணை யந்தணர் அங்கியுள் அங்கி
அணைதுணை வைத்ததனுட் பொருளான
இணைதுணை யாமத்தியங்கும் பொழுது
துணையிணை யாயதோர் தூய்நெறியாமே.
The Fire inside the fire is the Brahman’s Refuge
This inner secret is the same Refuge
Practicing Pranayama, and holding this Twin foot Refuge
One will be landed on the pure path, the true Bridge.
The True Fire that is to be worshipped, the Mulagni or Gnanagni is the Fire in the Daharakasa, the secret cave of the Heart where there is neither night nor day, where there shines neither the fire nor the Sun and the Moon and these stars, and which is the True Bridge to immortality. And this is Rudra, (He who drives away our sorrow) and Rudra is Fire as the Rig Veda says.
போதிரண்டோதிப் புரிந்தருள செய்திட்டு
மாதிரண்டாகி மகிழ்ந்துடனே நிற்கும்
Practicing this Sivoham both morn and eve,
The two damsels will to him in Joy appear.
Then the twin birds floating like two leaves
Will be burnt up in the Sacred Vedi.
The two birds are Soma and Surya Kala flying in the forest of manas. The two damsels are Para and Apara Gnana.
நெய்நின்றெரியு நெடுஞ்சுடரே சென்று
செய்நின்ற செல்வம் மதியதுவாமே.
From Them, who follow the Tall Flame raised by pouring ghee
And know the way the Aja is burnt up,
Their Pasu Bhoda will fall away, and ecstatic silence will be reached.
And this sacrificer will become Soma.
The Vedi is altar where the Yogic ghee is poured is the Place of Bindhu. The path of the flame is the Place of Agnja. The Tamil word ‘Mai’ ‘மை’, means black, black goat, and man’s body (மை is the form of the word மெய் in Telugu), and means Pasu and Pasubodha and the word Aja also means both goat and man in the Upanishads. The word is மத்தனம் is unmatta, a condition of silence and ecstasy. “Where one sees nothing, hears nothing else, understands nothing else, that is the Infinite”. And He who sees, perceives and understands this (Infinite), loves God, delights in God, revels in God, delights in God – he becomes a Svaraj, he is lord and master in all the worlds. (Chandogya Up. VII. 24. I, 25.2)
AGNIKARYA OR FIRE-SACRIFICE.
When the old sins committed with the body
lighted as a wick in the lamp of the world,
are poured into the Fire (of Gnana) raised
with songs, they will be burnt up by this Sacred Fire.
Our Tanu (body) Karana (senses) Bhuvana (worlds) and Bhoga (enjoyment) are all formed out of matter for eating out our good and bad Karma. So the light gained in this material evolution is compared to the lamp light (மாயாதனுவிளக்கு). When with this light, we work our Karma, and become one with God (ஏகனாகி) and offer up our good and bad Karma to Him (இறைபணிநிற்க) our anava mala with the body will be burnt up. (மலமாயை தன்னொடும்வன்வினையின்றே).
Looking on this great wealth as evil, one must seek
the Creator who gave him this precious life.
Desiring the wealth and Bliss in store for them,
the wise spend all their great fortune in performing sacrifice.
All this life and intelligence and wealth is given to us only so that we might eke out our salvation. The greater the gifts the greater our responsibility; but we often ignore the purpose and abuse the gifts. The greatest wealth is supposed to be required for performing a sacrifice. Yes, and unless we are prepared to give up and sacrifice what we consider as tending to our greatest happiness in this world, we cannot get at the other world. We have got to lose everything before we can secure the real inexhaustible treasure. We must die to ourselves before we can get everlasting life.
நான்கெட்டு சிவமானவாபாடித்தென்னேனம் கொட்டாமோ
“Let me sing ‘That I lost my self and became Sivam’”
The Bright Light, the undecaying Lord,
the Bright Light that dwells in my heart
the Light of my eye transcends the seven worlds
That Cool Light is the Lord of Sacrifice.
St. Tirumular brings out nicely the purport of the following Vedic texts.
“Experienced Sages bring the invincible Agni to his station (on the Altar); cherishing him in manifold (ways) in their hearts; desirous of propitiating him, they worship the (boon) shedding (Agni); and to those men, he is manifest as the Sun.” (Rig Veda II. ii.7, 146).
“Perceiving above the darkness (of ignorance) the higher light (in the sun) as the higher light within the heart, the Bright Source (of light and life) among the Gods, we have reached the Highest Light, yea, The Highest Light.” (Chan. Upanishad. III. 17.7. Rig Veda 1.50.10.)
“Now that Light which shines above this heaven, higher than all, higher than everything, in the highest world, beyond which there are no other worlds, that is the same light which is within man.” (Chandogya Upanishad. III. 13.7)
“He who is in the Fire, He who is in the heart, and He who is in the Sun, They are one and the same. (Maitrayani Upanishad VI. 17.)
“He, the Atma, Isa, is indeed Sambhu, Bava, Rudra, Prajapati, the generator of all, Hiranyagarbha, the Sat, Prana, Hamsa, Iswara, the Eternal, Vishnu, Narayana. And He who abides in the heart, and he who abides in the Sun, they are one and the same. To Thee who art this, endowed with all forms, settled in the true Vyoma (Chidambara) be adoration.” (Mait. Upanishad VII.7.)
“Now the Person who is seen in the eye (the inside of-antas) He is Rik, He is Samana, Uktha, Yajas, Brahman. The form of that person (in the eye) is the same as the form of the other person (in the Sun).” Chandogya Upanishad 1.7.5)
“Ghatapatim medhapatim Jalashabhesajam tat samyoh summamimahe.” (Rig Veda 1.42.4) We seek from Rudra, Lord of Songs, Lord of Sacrifices who possesses healing remedies His auspicious favor.”
“Tasmath Rudra Pasunanatipateh”.*
[* Col. Vans Kennedy in his excellent book on Ancient and Hindu Mythology in instancing an older writer’s ignorance of the most common words and common topics says “Pasupati is explained Bovis maritus; and that this strange explanation should not be mistaken it is added ubi notandam Pashu bovum et vaceam significare; Pashu however here means a living being. The book was printed so long ago as 1831. And yet what do we find modern writers doing. Prof. A. A. MacDonnell in Vedic Mythology (Gundriss dev Indo-arischen Philologie and Altertumskunde) translates it as ‘lord of beasts’ and adds an explanation to corroborate his translation. “The epithet Pasupati ‘lord of beasts’ which Rudra often receives in the V. S., A. V., and later is doubtless assigned to him because unhoused cattle are peculiarly exposed to his attacks and are therefore especially assigned to his care”!!! An Indian writer who at least is expected to know better translated the title of a Tamil book பசுசச்சிதானந்தமுடையதா (Do the Pasus (Jiva) possess Sathchidananda) into ‘are cows happy.’ This is scholarship with a vengeance!]
He is in the Fire of Homa, our Lord,
He is in the Fire that destroys all at the end.
He is in the Fire that is ocean of and causer of Samsara
He is in the Resounding Ocean of Grace.
As dwelling in each of the five elements and the Sun and Moon and Hotar (Ejamana, Soul) the Supreme Siva gets eight names as Bhava, Sarva, Ugra &c. (V. S. 39.8). But Agni is Rudra, (Rig. V. 2.1.6) and as such, Rudra, Sarva, Pasupati, Ugra, Asani, Bhava, Mahan Devah, are names given to represent eight different forms of Agni (S. B. 6.1.37) and Sarva, Bhava, Pasupati, Rudra are said to be also all names of Agni (L.B. 1.7. 38). In the verse before us, The Supreme One is identified with and as being in the Fire which creates, protects and destroys and gives grace.
The Tapobalas who know to establish the Fire in the heart, they who pointed out the way of establishing this fire according to the Vedas. They established this Fire, everywhere and reached the place of silence. This is their great Praise.
Brahmanas are they who perform six kinds of karma.
They raise the Sacred Fire, and worship it three times and study the Vedanta and perform Sandhya and finish the Sacred rites.
Desiring to know the Vedanta, they enter the three-lettered Pranava, which is Bodhanta, and perceive without thought the Lord of Nadanta, Vedanta and Bodhanta and enjoy His Bliss.
The last line of the text is important. The words ‘ஈதாமெனாது’ literally means ‘not saying this,’ i.e., not perceiving as an object which our writers call சுட்டறிவு. And the further words used are ‘கண்டு’ ‘seeing or perceiving’ and ‘இன்புறுதல்’ enjoying. As we have explained in several places, the soul has to lose its human consciousness or thought, its Pasaboda and Pasuboda and gain that higher vision and become steeped in Bliss in advaita; as stated by St. Tiruvalluvar also in the following couplet:-
இருள்நீங்கி இன்பம்பயக்கும் மருள்நீங்கி
Darkness will leave and Bliss will arise
To them getting rid of ignorance see, the Vision Pure.
The light that dawns at the end of this Pasuboda is Bodhanta. Vedanta is Yoga as we have elsewhere shown, the Soham or Sivohamarga. The fruition of this Yoga is Vedanta or Yoganta. ‘Nadam’ is the first of the 36 material tattvas and Nadanta is He who transcends all matter. The Vision and Joy spoken of here is therefore what happens in real mukti and not during the intermediate stages of the soul’s progress. In the lower stages, the Vision is dualistic and in the absolutely liberated condition, it is advaita. To bring it into line with Western Thought, we have stated the position thus. We may feel and be consciousness of feeling and these two states have to be distinguished; but western metaphysicians will not often make the distinction. In a pure state of feeling, seeing &c., there is no thought or consciousness and when consciousness intrudes, the perfect feeling or vision is distributed. In the first condition of pure feeling or Vision, it is one and advaita, the conscious mind having become merged with the feeling, and its identity is lost (அதுவதுவாய்). In the latter condition of feeling and of consciousness, there is dualism. So in all the Sadana stages, even up to the very end of Yoga the condition is dual; where the Sadhana has been perfecte dinto Sadhya, Paian, we have reached the condition of Oneness, when the Soul feels that it is one with all. And the highest Sadana (Dahara Vidya) repeated in almost all the Upanishads is “to see God in all Beings and all beings in God.” (Kaivalya Up. 12). And hence the direction ‘ஈதாமெனாது’. The following we cull from the Hon’ble Mr. P. Arunachalam’s address on ‘Jnana Vashistam’ delivered before the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society on 18th August 1909.
“The great gulf between the two systems is the doctrine that consciousness may exist without thought, which to European philosophers, at least of modern times, appears to be an absurdity an impossibility. However, Hindu sages declare and declare not as a speculation but as actual experience, that when thought is completely suppressed and also its twin brother sleep, the pure consciousness or spirit long hidden begins to manifest itself. Free from the strain of thought and oblivion (நினைப்பு and மறப்பு Ed.), and truly pure in heart, the soul is blessed with the vision of God, wins the peace of God that passeth all understanding, realizes somewhat of the infinite power, glory and bliss of the Divine Spirit and is finally united to it.”
If in the previous passage, ‘feeling’ was substituted for consciousness, it would better express our view. It may be called also ‘consciousness’ because the power by which the Soul perceives the Vision Pure is called Pathignana or Divine consciousness.
Pranava is the highest mantra and tantra, a Sadana for realizing the oneness with God. And accordingly the Chandogya Upanishad begins with the worship and description of Om. ‘Om, this letter, Udgita, should be adored. Om is, chanted, its description.” Its other form is the Panchakshara which can be pronounced with or without the Omkara, (no other mantra can be used without the Omkara); and the Yoga practices all deal with the meaning and use of this three-lettered Pranava (some Upanishads recognize the ardhamatra also).
Meditating on the Sacred mantra, they delight to search that Savitri which is Gayatri. They ride on the car of love, and loving, become love, those Brahmans who would not be engulfed in Maya.
We quote the famous Gayatri Mantra from H. H. Wilson’s translation, with his notes. It occurs in Rig Veda III. iii. 9, 10. The Rishi of this Sukta is the famous Visvamitra.
We meditate on that desirable light of the Divine Savitri, who influences our pious rites.
This is the celebrated verse of the Vedas which forms part of the daily devotions of the Brahmans, and was first made known to English readers by Sir W. Jones translation of a periphrastic interpretation: he renders it. Let us adore the supremacy of that divine sun, the godhead, who illuminates all, who recreates all, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, whom we invoke to direct our understanding aright in our progress towards his holy seat (Works, 8Vo. Vol. XIII p. 367): the text has merely Tatsaviturvarenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yo nah prachodayat: the last member may be also rendered, who may animate or enlighten our intellects: the verse occurs in the Yajush, III, 35, and in the Saman, II, 8, 12: both commentators are agreed to understand by Savitri, the soul, as one with the soul of the world, Brahma, but various meanings are also given thus. Sayana has, we meditate on the light which is now with Brahma, his own light, which, from its consuming influence on ignorance and its consequences, is termed Bhargas, and is that which is desirable, from its having to be known or worshipped by all (varenyam), the property of the supreme being (parameswara), the creator of the world, and the animator, impeller, or urger (savitri), through the internally abiding spirit (antaryami) of all creatures; again, yah, although masculine, may, by Vaidik licence, be the relative to the neuter noun bhargas, that light which animates all (dhiyah), acts, (karmani), or illumes all Understandings (buddhih): again, devasya savituh may mean, of the bright or radiant sun, as the progenitor of all, sarvasya prasavitur, and bhargas may be understood as the superior orb of light, consumer of sins, papanam tapakam tejomandalam: again, bhargas may be interpreted, food, and the prayer may only implore the sun to provide sustenance, tasya prasadad annadilakshnam phalam dhimahi tasya adharabhuta bhavema, we anticipate from his favour the reward that is characterised by food and the like, that is, may we be supported by him: Mahidhara, in his comment on the same text in the Yajush, notices similar varieties or interpretation.”
We invite the reader’s attention to the following paragraphs taken from the interesting book of Mr. Narayana Iyengar of Mysore service on Indo-Aryan Mythology. Though a Vaishnava, he displays an unprejudiced mind and liberality of spirit, rare even in this so called enlightened age.
“The aim of these two Brahmanas seems to be to show that the Son God of Sacrifice and austerity is identical with the Bhargas, Light, of Savitar (Father Prajapati) that is worshipped by means of Viswamitra’s Gayatri verse (Rig Veda, III, 62, 10):-
We contemplate (or ponder over) that covetable Bhargas of our Father (so that) He might quicken our intellect or wisdom.
Our Father Prajapati’s Light, Wisdom, consists in His having sacrificed Himself and thereby become all the worlds and creatures by entering them (vide pp. 74, 76 ante). He has become all enselfing and loving them all as himself. This His aspect as the loving Child in the heart’s womb of all is the Son-God.
Now the Gayatri verse has eight syllables in each of its three feet, counting nyam as two syllables, ni-yam as the Taittriyins do;* [* The syllables are:- Tat Sa-vi-tur va-re-ni-yam Bhar-go De-va-sya Dhi-ma-hi dhi-yo yo nah pra-ko-da-yat.] and it appears to me that among the several names of Goddess Vak (Speech) in Rig Veda I. 164.41 (the same repeats I in Taitt. Arunyaka 1.9), the name Ashtapadi (she of eight syllables) means her aspect as the Gayatri metre. Now, as peda means also a word or name, the fact that only eight names are selected for the Son God shows the intention to exhibit Him as Gayatra alias Ashtapadi ‘He of eight names’, because He as Bhargas is the Deity of that Ashtapadi Gayatri which is the verse III. 62, 10 above quoted. Moreover the syllables of the eight names of the Son–God according to the Natapatha Brahmana amount to 22, but as they must be 24 in order to correspond to the 24 syllables of the Gayatri verse, it is noteworthy that the other Brahmana supplies the omission by adding the two syllables de-va to Ugra. So much as about the eight names. Now about the eight forms. The syllables of the words expressing the forms amount, according to Satapatha, to 21, but according to Kaushitaki, to 25; but if we read the latter’s ‘Oshadhayo Vanasputayah’ as the compound word Oshadhivanaspatayah, the number of the syllables of the words expressing the forms also would be exactly 24. These eight forms would represent the whole universe if the waters are taken to means the stars, the plants and trees the earth, and the food of all the creatures.
By these forms the Son God is shown to be Visvarupa, as He is the In-dweller in them all, loving them all as Himself: that is to say, that in making a gift to Himself to all forms and creatures, he has not given Himself,; no, He as unbounded Love has given Himself completely and fully to every one of them and so if we count this unbounded Love by the number of the countless creatures in each one of whom He is full, He is Visvarupa, Multi-force, meaning that He is the One Manifold. In Rudra Sukta II. 33 of the Rig Veda, to emphasize the fact that He is not the forms themselves but is the invisible Self in them it is said that He has entered them. He is Kumara, the child, by being in the womb of all forms and creatures. This His ninth aspect which as Bhargas, Light, Self, permeates throughout all the letters of the Gayatri verse in question as their real meaning – throughout all the eight forms as their Self - is always the incorruptible unchangeable One, however much we may multiply Him, like the figure 9, which is the Ultimate figure.† [† Nine is the ultimate figure; over and above it are obtained by adding to the figures 1 to 9 a cypher or one or other of the same figure; and it retains its character as 9 even if the figure got by multiplying any figures by 9 are add together omitting cyphers.] The Mahabharata, in the story about the birth of Kumara, in calling Him by several names calls him Nayaka, the Darling Nine or the Darling New, as nava means both nine and new and ka, an affix used to denote endearment (as putraka), and the child is new comer. The Son God as the Self is always new, fresh, incorruptible I have tried to show that Rudra is the Bharga contemplated upon by the sacred Gayatri (P. 486 ante) Bhargas is a Sukaranta neuter word. In the classical Sanskrit one of the names of Rudra is Bharga – an akaranta masculine word. It appears to me that eh Vedic Bhargas was purposely changed into the masculine Bharga in order to show that Bhargas should be viewed as Purusha, outwardly man, but esoterically the formless In-dweller.
For the same reason the Vedic sakaranta neuter Haras seems to have been changed into the akaranta masculine Hara which is one of the well known classical names of Rudra. The Taitt. Brahmana II, 2, 10, 2 says that there was this Haras, valour, in Prajapati which is in this Aditya (sun).* [* “Atha va-ideam tarini Prajapatau haro amit yad asmin Aditya.”] and that obtaining it from Prajapati Indra became the adhipati or Lord of the Devas. It appears to me that the same Bhargas of Gayatri verse is spoken of here as Haras. That which is in the sun is the Purusha in the sun. Obtaining Him as his Valorous Self, Indra becomes great.
சொருபமதானோர்துகளில் பார்ப்பாரே. (4)
Meditating on the great Path of the Pranava
And realizing its meaning with the help of the Guru,
And reaching the Divine Seat of the Vedas
These sinless Brahmins become One with the Supreme.
There is an Upanishad called ‘The Pranava Upanishad’ which forms part of the Gopatha Brahmana (I, I, vv. 16 to 30) attached to the most mystical of the Vedas, the Atharvan, as also a Gayatri Upanishad (I, I, vv. 31 to 38). The Brahman creates Brahma upon a lotus leaf. The latter by means of penance perceives the syllable Om of two letters, four morale. And from these letters the whole evolution of Cosmos proceeds: water, moisture and heat; earth, atmosphere and heaven; fire, wind and the Sun; Bhur, Bhuvah, Svah; Gayatri, Trishtubh, Jagati; Rik, Yajus, Saman, and itihasa, purana; Brahma, Vishnu, Ishana and sarva. In the conflict between the Asuras and the Gods about the city of Aindranagaram, the Gods become victorious under the leadership of Om, the eldest son of Brahma. The reward of the Om is that no holy text should be chanted without Om.
In this account, Om is divided into letters of 3 matras and also into four, the fourth matra being called the ardhamatra. The Mandukya Upanishad adopts the four-fold classification and the first three are the three parts of Om, A, U & M and the 4th is the partless Om described in the 7th & the 12th mantras, as Adrishtam (invisible) Avyavaharyam (imperceptible), Agrahyam (unseizable) Alakshanam (incapable of proof), Achintyam (beyond thought), Avyapadecyam (not to be defined), perceivable by the soul when becoming one with Him, and as Santam-Sivam-Advaitam-Chaturtham. This amatra Fourth and secondless Sivam, is as we have seen, named as Sarva, (in Gopatha-brahmana), the name by which Rudra-Pacupati is described in the Atharva Veda. The same four-fold classification is followed in the Atharvacikha Upanishad where the first three letters are identified with Brahma-Vishnu-Rudra-Indradi and described as productions, and the Fourth with Sambhu, the Cause of causes. In the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, in I. 27, the Supreme Brahman is said to be described by the term Pranava and in Vyasa’s commentary on I.25, the sentence, “Consequently, the knowledge of particular names is to be looked for in the Scripture” is commented on by Vachaspati Misra, the author of Bhamati, a gloss on Sri Sankara’s great Commentary, in the following words:
By the words etc., particular names (Samjnadi) such as Siva, Rudra, Mahecvaradi, etc., His possession of the Shadangas and the ten Avayayas is understood. As said in the Vayu-purana, Omniscience (Sarvajnata), Satisfaction (Tripati), Eternal Knowledge (Anadi-Bodham), Self-Dependence (Svatantra), Constancy of Power (Alupta Sakti), and Infinity of Power (Ananta Sakti), Knowledge (Jnanam), Desirelessness (vairagyam), Power (Aicvaryam), Tapas, Satyam, Forgiveness (Kshama), Endurance (Dhriti) Act of Creating (Srishtitvam) and Self-Knowledge (Atma-sambodha), Being the Substratum of All Activities, these ten immutable qualities (Avyayas) exist always in Sankara.1 [1 Adapted from Rama Prasad’s True Hinduism, Part the first, p. 215.]
The reference to the Vayu-purana, as Vachaspati would have it or to the Vayaviya-samhita of Siva-Maha-Purana as my brother Mr. V. V. Ramanan would have it, is Uttara Bhaga; chap. VII, 23:
Vijnanabiksha in his Yogasarasangraha (Jha’s Translation, pp. 94, et seq) sums up this in the following words:
The Srutis, having spoken of the three matras of the pranava (Om) – a, u and m, as being the three deities, Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, declare a fourth matra of the same, as indicating the Supreme Brahma, over and above the three aforesaid deities of the pranava. And this fourth matra, apart from the first three, is nothing more than the sphota. It is this again which is called the ardha-matra. When like a heap, the letter and word are not separated, one half may be said to be the letter and the other half the word. Just as the whole can never be talked of as apart from its parts, so a word cannot be altered apart from it constituent letters. Hence the Smriti, ‘The Goddess is the Ardha-matra which is unutterable in any specific way (i.e., apart from the letters).’
Sri Appayya Dikshita in his Sivatattvaviveka refers to all these authorities in the commentary on verse 39.
Mrs. Annie Besant, in concluding the article on the Science of Peace in the October No. The Theosophist describes this Word Power in the following beautiful language:
“Samskrit is a language in which natural facts are expressed in sounds which are creative; every Name of a Great Being expresses the Being, every letter a fact. There are names which are “Words of Power” which are not descriptive but creative. Hence the secrecy with which names have been concealed; names bind and loose. “Why askest thou my name, seeing it is secret?” asks an “Angel” of the Hebrew wrestler. Words of Power were known to the Egyptians, the early Americans, the Hebrews, the Hindus, the Gnostics. They are graven on Gnostic gems, names meaningless to the modern mind but potent in the speech of one who knows. They are words compacted of letters each one of which expresses a fact; when the relation of the facts to each other is a vital truth then the letters expressing the facts make a Word of Power. The use of the word summons the forces of nature connected with the facts expressed in its component letters. Such Words are potent, magical.
Now what Samskrit word sums up all evolution, all becoming, all time, all eternity? The Vedas, the Upanishads, declare that there is such a word, and also that the three letters of the word are severally indicative of the three states of consciousness. This word is AUM.
She seems to be however unaware of the amatra Fourth, and gives her own interpretation of the Pranava which we could not find in any of the authorities we referred to above. However, what she says about the pronounce ability of the word as a Unity or as a Triplicity is important. And as we have identified the Samashti Pranava with the Partless Fourth as Sivam-Advaitam-Chaturtham or Turiyam, the Vyashti Pranava can only he pronounced as a Triplicity by the term UMA, and in no other form. And for this we have direct authority of our great Srikantha Sivacharya and the Lainga Purana:
“Who as colored by the Supreme Energy, the Parasakti, called Uma – a word formed by the constituent sounds of the Pranava in their reversed order – is described as dark and yellowish (Krishna Pingala) who is the Supreme, All-transcending Brahman.” (Saiva-bhashya on the Vedanta Sutras I.iii. 12).
“Thy pranava is the one, and mine is, likewise, the other. There is no doubt, Oh Devi, that your pranava imparts power to all Mantras. In my pranava the letters stand as A, U and M; but mark you that your pranava is distinguished by the arrangement of its letters in the order U, M and A, a pranava which is at once tri-partite, prolated in sound, and superb!” (Translation).
We have shown that the Path of the Pranava is the Path of Yoga. But the symbol is used in all the lower paths also, that the meaning may dawn on the aspirant little by little. The exoteric form of worship corresponding to the Yoga is the worship of the Siva-linga. We have often and again shown that the Siva-linga is nothing but the Pranava in a visible form and has no sex meaning. The word linga itself means a sign, a perceptible sign of the Imperceptible deity. And as such it is used in several passages of the Upanishads:
And Haradatta quotes it also in his Sruti-Suktimala.
We know that the Pranava is the highest sign and symbol of the Deity. As shown in the Pranava Upanishad, Om is the eldest son of Brahma, God Ganapati, and the Pillaiyar culi உ with which everyone begins a writing is nothing but Pranava. The visible form of the Pranava is ௐ and this form is composed of an arc and a line. The arc of Ardhachandra form is the Bindu, and the line (Danda) is the Nadam. And the Linga is formed of the letters of the Pranava. Says St. Tirumular in another place:-
As ‘A’ it is the All.
As ‘U’ it is life of the All.
If ‘A’ and ‘U’ is to be known,
This ‘A’ and ‘U’ is the Linga.
In the Pitha of the Linga is the Onkara
In the Kantha of the Linga is the Makara
In the inner arch (Yoni) of the Linga is the Ukara
In the (Urdhava) Linga of Akara is present Bindu and Nadam.
That the Linga is the Pranava is the gist of Linga-purana and the famous Pillar of Fire that arose, without beginning or end, and which became the Siva-linga of Pranava form is clear from the following passage:-
The worship of Siva-linga is essentially a yoga worship and the Agamic rituals are all yoga practices. The Priest who is entitled to perform the Puja in the Siva-Puja has to undergo accordingly Nirvana diksha and Acharya-abhisheka, a qualification which would require him to be an adept in yoga and not a mere aspirant. As the highest upasana in Yoga is the Daharavidya or the heart-worship symbolized by the Akaca-Linga of Chidambara Pundarika Kshetra, the Chidambaram Temple priests are all supposed to be yogis and one with Sri Nataraja (in the Saha Marga). Viracaivism which marks this high-water mark of Esoteric Atma-linga worship of the Heart abjures accordingly the worship of Sthavara-linga, though they are now in fact their most devoted worshippers. That is also why they wear the Linga next to their heart. Vemana, the great yogi frequently points out the difference between the real heart-worship of the Linga and the purely formal worship. Says he:-
“How would he who worshipped the Jiva-linga worship images of stone? Would he taste the bitter who had drunk the honey?”
From the Linga-purana account this Siva-linga of Pranava Form is the Fire, or Agni, and Agni is Rudra. And we are extremely indebted to Mr. Narayana Aiyyangar for pointing out how the worship of the Siva-linga and the sacrificial worship of Agni or Rudra is connected, and how this in its esoteric signification is the Dahara-Vidya. The pit of the altar is the yoni, the heart or Dahara Pundarika of all creatures. The Fire generated from it by friction of Atma and Pranava* and rising upwards is the Linga of the Alinga Paramecvara or Rudra. We accordingly make no apology for quoting the following passages:-
“This son Agni Mahadeva is the bellowing Bull that has entered all the mortals (Rig Veda IV, 58, 3). He is Vicvayu that has gone into all the caves or hearts (Rig Veda 1.67,3, vide p. 398 ante). In other words He is Vicvarupa, the multiform and yet the One. He is the one fire that is maintained in the houses, hearts, of all sacrificers. As Agni is identical with Rudra, one of the Rudra-suktas of the Rig Veda, viz, II.33, mentions Rudra as Icana, the Lord, who is Puru-rupa and Vicva-rupa, both meaning that He is Multiform (verses 9 and 10), and as the lion like Youth sealed garta (verse 11). Garta means the pit and may be taken to mean here the fire-altar, representing esoterically the sacrificer’s heart. He is the youth because He is the strong Son-God, able to kill all the dark passions; His youth should be taken to be a metaphorical expression denoting the spiritual vigor and strength of the formless Infinite Son that is in all forms. This Vicvarupa Rudra is identical with Indra who, according to the Rig Veda, has become multiform (p. 338 ante) and who is another aspect of the valiant Son of Sacrifice, Prajapati. In Rig Veda X. 99, 7, Indra is called Asmat Sujata, ‘our lovely Son’; and the Taitt-Brahmana III 7,7,8, has a verse in which the sacrificer addresses Agni thus:-
I am thine and Thou art this (wealth of) mine. Thou art my yoni, womb, and I am thine womb. Being mind, O Agni, carry my oblations. Thou art, O Tatavedas, the Son that achieves the World for the father. (Putrah pitre loka-krit Jatavedah).
O Agni, be seated in thine own place, ‘Agne Svam yonin asida’.
Agni is the womb in which the sacrificer is born spiritually (vide p. 33o ante). The sacrificer is Agni’s womb or place, because Agni is symbolical of the Son-God cherished in his heart’s womb. As Agni represents the spiritual Son, the Self, it is the Son who is Lokakrit, the achiever of Heaven, to the father, the knower, that has kindled Him in himself. The Mantra used in making atmasamaropana of Agni i.e., establishing Agni mentally in one’s own heart (Vide p. 361 ante), says:-
O Agni who art the Self (of me and all)! That (spiritual) form of thine which is fit to be sacrificed, with that (form) do thou ascend (my) self (mind or heart), making for us all those wealth’s in abundance which are fit for men. Becoming sacrifice, be thou seated in (me who am) sacrifice, in (me who am) thine own womb or place. Born (or rising) from the (sacrificial) ground, come on, O Jata-vedas, (into me) together with thine home (the altar).
This mantra is found in the Taitt. Brahmana, II, 5.8.8, and the Taitt. Samhita also (III.4.10.5) quotes it and says that by it the sacrificer places Agni in himself (Atman Samarohayate) and that the sacrificer is the womb for Agni (Yajamano va Agner yonih). Agni’s Yajmya form, which is to be sacrificed, is identical with the primeval Purusha alias yajna, the victim, that was sacrificed according to the Purusha-sukta. The sacrificer, by realizing Him in himself, becomes a sacrifice (self-sacrifice) and so he too calls himself sacrifice. Thus the whole altar glowing with the sacred fire is placed in the knower’s heart at the end of the rite; and when he worships the sacred fire again he says the next mantra “Upavaroha Jatavedah,” etc., by which he beseeches Agni-Purusha in the heart to descend from there into the fire in order to carry his oblations to the Gods.
Thus Agni-Rudra is the In-dweller, Purusha, the formless Infinite Self in the heart’s womb of the knower. Vishnu, from Vic., to pervade or penetrate, is one who has penetrated Himself into all creatures and things and Vishnu is one of the names of Agni. There are two kinds of creation, spiritual and animal. Those who are blind to the former think that their creation takes place simply by animal lust and union of the sexes and that there is no higher power (Bhagavadgita XVI. 8.) Their world extends from the stomach downwards, as they indulge in gluttony and lust. To them even the holy name of Prajapati, the Genitor, means nothing more than the Jaghanya member, and they likewise degrade Vishnu-Purusha from the lovely In-dweller to simply purusha, man, and then to man’s sex. As a contrast to this purusha of animal creation and in order to entice souls to the Purusha of Spiritual creation, the same names of purusha and yoni are employed, but their locality is lifted up to the heart which, being alike in man and woman and therefore sexless, gives a new meaning altogether to them, namely the Self as the sexless Purusha glowing, or the sacred fire in the sexless womb of the altar of Vidya or Sraddha, Knowledge or Faith. Similarly the word retas in the Jaghanya sense is the seed of animal creation; but lifted up to the region of the heart it means the Rig-vedic Mind’s Retas or Supreme Self’s effusion of sexless love, by realizing which the Knower also creates himself spiritually as the One-Manifold in order to love all creatures as himself “O ye men! Here is the Purusha who is the formless Self in the Puras, bodies, of all creatures, who is sexless, who, nevertheless, is the most valiant youth conquering all by loving all creatures as himself and thereby leaving no second or enemy to war with, who is most manly, putting down all sins and temptations. Realize Him as your spiritual manliness and procreate yourselves in the womb of Faith or Knowledge.” It appears to me that the Linga symbol that is embedded in the stony seat and worshipped in Saiva temples represents esoterically the Lovely Purusha established as the sacred Agni in the womb or altar of the hearts of all knowers. Even Brahmin ascetics of the great smarta community, who have studied the Vedanta and renounced home and all worldly desires pay reverence to the Linga, which they would not do if there was anything sexual in it. In some temples the Linga is called Jyotir-Linga, Symbol of Light, and Akaca-Linga, Symbol of Sky, meaning thereby that the God worshipped is Formless and Infinite like the Sky. Phallus worship seems to have prevailed among other ancient nations also. According to Webster, the Phallus-symbol was carried in procession in the Bacchic orgies, or worshipped in various ways. I cannot bring myself to believe that a nation, which in other respects was highly civilized, worshipped the Phallus-symbol as meaning only the emblem of the generative power in nature. To worship that power no religious teaching or symbol is necessary. Even beasts know that kind of worship. At all events, so far as the ancient, riddle-loving, Samskrit-India is concerned, the Linga-worship seems to me to have been invented as an etymological Vedantic riddle by pondering over the Vedic ritual of placing Agni-Purusha in the womb of the heart. The double meaning of Purusha and Yoni is at the root of the riddle, which seemingly is gross and sexual but really sublime and spiritual. [Essays in Indo-Aryan Mythology, part I., by Narayana Aiyyangar (vide pp. 103, 104, 105, 106 and 107)]
Professor H. H. Wilson has the following remarks1 [1 H. H. Wilson on the Puranas, p. 72] to offer on the subject and he elsewhere remarks that the form of the Siva Linga is unobjectionable.
“There is nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity; it is all mystical and spiritual. The Linga is two-fold, external and internal. The ignorant who needs a visible sign, worship Siva as a “Mark” or “type” – which is the proper meaning of the word “Linga”, - of wood or stone; but the wise look upon this outward emblem as nothing, and contemplate, in their minds, the invisible, inscrutable type, which is Siva himself. Whatever may have been the origin of this form of worship in India, the notion which it was founded, according to the impure fancies of European writers, are not to be traced in even the Saiva Puranas.”
Elsewhere he remarks2 [2 H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S. in “Hindu Religions”, p. 139]
“The worship of Siva, under the type of the Linga, it has been observed, is almost the only form in which that Deity is reverenced. It is also perhaps the most ancient object of homage adopted in India subsequently to the ritual of the Vedas which was chiefly, if not wholly, addressed to the elements and particularly to Fire. How far the worship of the Linga is authorized by the Vedas, id doubtful, but it is the main purport of several of the Puranas. There can be no doubt of its universality at the period of the Mahommedan invasion of India. The idol destroyed by Mahmud of Ghizni was nothing more than a Linga, being according to Mirkhered, a block of stone four or five cubits long and of proportionate thickness. It was, in fact, one of the twelve great Lingas then set up in various parts of India, several of which besides Somesvara, or Somnatha, which was the name of the Siva demolished by Mahmud, were destroyed by the early Mohammedan conquerors. Most, if not all of them, also are named in works, of which the date cannot be much later than the eighth or ninth century, and it is therefore to be inferred with as much certainty as anything short of positive testimony can afford, that the worship of Siva, under this type, prevailed throughout India at least as early as the fifth or sixth century of the Christian era. Considered as one great branch of the universal public worship, its prevalence, no doubt, dates much earlier; but the particular modifications under which the several types received their local designations, and became entitled to special reverence, are not in every case of remote antiquity.
My brother Mr. Rangasvami Aiyyar has dwelt on the subject at great length and in all its aspects in his paper on the Inner Meaning of the Siva-linga published in Volumes VII and VIII of this journal.
Col. Vans Kennedy points out how this Siva-linga symbol has no sex origin.
Max Muller translates ‘Alinga’ as ‘imperceptible,’ and Sri Sankaracharya explains Linga of the Svetasvatara-Upanishad text as a sign on whose cogency His existence could be inferred. That is, the Linga is the perceptible sign of the Imperceptible Deity. The Sutrakara, Badarayana, also uses the word Linga frequently to mean the sign or characteristic mark, as in the following Sutra:
Appayya Dikshit in his Sivarkamanidipika on
quotes the following text from Rig-Veda, 5th
Mandala, 3rd Sukta, 3rd Mantra:-
The word used is ‘Janima’ and it is interpreted as meaning of Siva-linga in the following upabrimhana passage of the Paracara-purana:-
In this passage the word “Linga” is used for “Janima”, and its qualification as “Charuchitra” points to the Rig Vedic mantra.
சத்தியமுந் தவமும் தானவனாதலும்
எய்த்தகு மிந்திய மீட்டியே வாட்டலும்
ஒத்த வுயிருடலுண்டாய் யுணர்வுற்றுப்
பெத்த மறுத்தலுமாரும் பிரமமே. (5)
With Satya, Tapas and Soham-Bhavana,
With the destruction of the five senses
Body and soul equalized in Dhyana,
Severing Bandha Brahman he becomes.
வேதாந்தங்கேட்க விரும்பிய வேதியர்
வேதாந்தங்கேட்டுந் தம்வேட்கை யொழிந்திலர்
வேதாந்தமாவது வேட்கை யொழிந்திடம்
வேதாந்தங் கேட்டவர் வேட்கைவிட்டாரே. (6)
They desired to hear the Vedanta,
Yet hearing, they left not their desire,
The place of desirelessness is Vedanta,
The true Seers of Vedanta left their desire.
Vedanta is Yoga, and Yoga is Chitta vritti nirodha. Study of the Vedanta is otherwise useless.
நூலஞ் சிகையுதுவ்விற் பிரமமே
நூலது காற்பாச துண்சிகை கேசமாம்
நூலது வேதாந்தம் நுண்சிகை ஞானமாம்
நூலுடையந்தணர் காணு நுவலிலே. (7)
The Sacred thread and knot make up Brahman;
The thread is the foot, the knot the head;
The thread is the Vedanta; the knot-Jnana;
When the thread-wearing Brahmans would know the truth.
Vedanta or Yoga is the Pada or Sadhana or Soham-Bhavana; Siddhanta or Jnana is the Phala or fruit of such Sadhana. Cf., elsewhere “தானான வேதாந்தம் தான் என்னும் சித்தாந்தம்”.
சத்தியமின்றித் தனிஞானந் தானின்றி
ஒத்தவிடையம் விட்டோரு முணர்வின்றிப்
பத்தியுமின்றிப் பரனுண்மை யின்றியூண்
பித்தேறுமூடர் பிராமணர்தாமன்றே. (8)
Without Satya and subtle Jnana
Without giving up sense-objects and Meditation,
Without love, and faith in God,
And mad after body, are these fools Brahmans?
திருநெறியாகிய சித்த சித்தின்றிக்
துரியச்சமாதியாந் தூய்மறையோர்க்கே. (9)
Holding to the Path which is not Pasa and Pasu-Jnana,
Reaching the Feet of the Guru though his Grace,
And giving up all Karma and Niyama,
The Brahmans pure, attained to Turiya-Samadhi.
மறையோர்தம் வேதாந்தவாய்மையிற் தூய்மை
குறையோர்தல் மற்றுள்ள கோலாகலமென்
றறிவோர்மறை தெரிந்தந்தணராமே. (10)
They are Brahmans who are real Brahmans,
These Vedantins should possess purity of speech;
If fault finding to be bad they know,
Then they had understood the Vedas.
அந்தண்மை பூண்டவருமறை யந்தத்துச்
சிந்தைசெய் யந்தணர்சேருஞ் செழும்புவி
அந்தியுஞ்சந்தியு மாகுதிபண்ணுமே. (11)
With a loving heart, and mind on true end intent,
Any land the antanars live in, will never no decrease.
And the king of the land will also prosper;
They will offer oblations at evening and junctions.
The author gives here both the meaning of அந்தணர், அந்தண்மை பூண்டோர் and அந்தத்தை அணுகுவோர்.
வேதாந்தஞானம் விளங்கி விதியிலோர்
நாதாந்தபோத நணுகிய போகத்துப்
போதாந்தமாம் பரன்பாற்புகப் புக்கதால்
நாதாந்தமுத்தியுஞ் சித்தியு நண்ணுமே. (12)
After securing Vedanta-Jnana, according to law,
One attains Nadanta-Jnana and enters
The joy of the Supreme, beyond all Jnana.
He enters then, and grants Nadanta-Mukti and Siddhi.
ஒன்றுமிரண்டு மொடுங்கிய காலத்து
லென்று விழுங்கும் விகிர்தனை நாடுவார்
சென்றுவணங்குந் திருவுடையோரே. (13)
When Advaita-Jnana is attained,
Though they may live and speak like others,
Their mind is placed on the Lord ever-free,
They become fit objects of our worship.
தானேவிடும் பற்றிரண்டுந் தரித்திட
நானே விடைப்படு மேதொன்றை நாடாது
பூமேவு நான்முகன் புண்ணிய போகனாய்
The two bonds leave one when, without object,
He offers the oblations to the four-faced God,
When he does not do so,
His own ‘I’-ness will sprout up.
The king without learning and Yama are one;
Nay, the latter by far is the better one.
The king knows no law, hesitates not to kill;
The good, Yama will not approach.
The Hindu ideal of Yama, the God of death, is a high one. He represents Dharma, ideal of Justice, and his scales would not turn by even a hair breadth. For the ideal of kingship herein set forth, see my introduction to the Tamilian Antiquary.
Everyday of life, if the king does not
Seek the right path and hold to it,
Everyday will ruin befall the land;
Everyday will grow less the fortune of the king.
Where is the good of the garb, when they belie the garb;
True garb they wear who don’t belie the garb;
If the false wearer is turned by the mighty king
To keep his faith, salvation will then be sure.
In this, and in verses, 4, 5 & ( & 10, it is made out that it is the duty of kings to find out and expose religious impostors, wearing the cloak of holiness, so that they may not delude mankind, and that these should be reformed with the help of true jnanis.
Without Jnana, man wears sacred thread,
The land’s prosperity and the lustre of the king will fade.
Therefore should he with knowledge weed out
Those who for show wear the Sacred thread.
Without wisdom, braid and thread they wear,
And pose as men of wisdom rare.
If such, the king finds out and wisdom imparts,
With Jnani’s help, the land benefits.
The Kine and Women, and Men of tapas
And true devotees, praised by the Gods
The king should protect, Fails he in this,
Then goes he surely to the nether worlds.
If wealth in this life and future bliss, he desires,
Then, even in falling, the king should do the right
Of the fruits of the people’s industries
A sixth, for share, the king doth take.
If the king his people rightly protects
His subjects abide by the sovran rule.
If like tiger he preys on his subjects
The land becomes a prey to all.
Following the law and offering in fire,
One does not drink the soma juice,
But drinks the mead for getting muddled
To punish such is the king’s duty.
If in their own religious paths, they do not stand
They reap the punishment, according to law
As declared by our Father, Siva, in the life to come.
In this life, the king’s duty is to punish.
PRAISE OF CHARITY.
Give ye to all and make no difference
Divide and eat, bury not old wealth.
Ye hungering men, don’t swallow fast;
Learn ye from the cawing crows to wait.
PRAISE OF RAIN.
From rain is produced the ambrosial food
Thence grow the trees that produce food,
The palms and plantains, canes and cocoa.
And the Kanji trees all producing food.
The Heavenly stream, flowing down the Hills
Springs from the inmost heart of the silent ones
No froth, no dirt, no banks are there
In our Father’s cleansing stream, crystal pure.
I learnt the object of my union with the body
I learnt of my union with the God of Gods.
He entered my heart without leaving me;
I learnt the knowledge that knows no sin.
When learned men engage in thought,
The learned men find ‘an eye’ in thought.
This learning of theirs becomes as nought,
When this eye (of wisdom) will show the truth.
நிற்கின்றபோதே நிலையுடையான் கழற்
கற்கின்ற செய்மின் கழிந்தறும் பாவங்கள்
சொற்குன்றவின்றித் தொழுமின் றொழுதபின்
மற்றொன்றிலாத மணிவிளக்காமே. (3)
While you live, the Feet of the changeless
Worship ye, your sins will fall off.
Praise ye with words without any fault,
Then ye are one with the matchless Light.
கல்வியுடையார் கழிந்தோடிப் போகின்றார்
ரெல்லியுங் காலையுமேத்து மிறைவனை
வல்லியுள் வாதித்த காயமுமாமே. (4)
The men of learning depart this world,
The embodied men press the serpent and drink.
The Lord praised during morning and noon,
Is the Supreme praised in the Upanishad.
The serpent is the Kundalini or Kudila, a material force. You can use it or abuse it. When you abuse it, it yields poison. When you use it with knowledge, the poison is converted into ambrosia. The following stanza of Ilamperumanadigal puts it most beautifully, and it echoes a fine hymn of the Rig Veda.
சடையே, நீரகம் ததும்பி நெருப்புக் கலிக்குமே
மிடறே, நஞ்சகந்துவன்றி யமிர்துபி விற்றுமே
வடிவே, முளியெரிகவை இத்தளிர் தயங்கும்மே
யடியே, மடங்கள் மதஞ்சீறி மலர்பழிக்கும்மே
யஃதான் றினைய வென்றறிகிலம் யாமேமுனை தவத்
O Thou Supreme with the death dealing Trident of Justice!
Thy braid overflows with water and showers fire;
Thy throat shows the poison and showers ambrosia;
Thy Form of terrific fire is mellow as a leaf.
They Foot crushes the asura and shames the lotus.
Thy Supreme Nature we are unable to discern.
துணையதுவாய்வருந் தூயமலர்க் கந்தந்
துணையதுவாய்வருந் தூயநற்கல்வியே. (5)
The Pure wisdom comes as our help;
The Pure word comes as your help;
As flower and fragrance they help you;
The Pure learning comes as your help.
The word is the knowledge contained in books. Learning and wisdom are connected as flower and fragrance.
நூலொன்றுபற்றி நுனியேற மாட்டாதார்
பாலொன்றுபற்றினாற் பண்பின் பயன்கெடும்
மாலொன்றுபற்றி மயங்குகின்றாரே. (6)
If they can’t ascend the top by true knowledge,
And seek devious ways, they are lost indeed.
Hold the rod up, the birds are scattered;
Holding to ignorance, they are lost in delusion.
ஆய்ந்து கொள்வார்க்கரன்ங்கே வெளிப்படுக்
தோய்ந்த நெருப்பது தூய்மணி சிந்திடு
வாய்ந்த மனமல்கு நூலேணியாமே. (7)
Hara is manifest to those who seek;
He, the effulgent fire sheds the pure gem.
To him who reaches the bright young moon
His mind will become the ladder of rope.
கழித்துணையாங் கற்றிலாதவர் சிந்தை
வழித்துணையாம் பெருந்தன்மை வல்லானே. (8)
In the presence of true Helpers and Healers;
The uneducated count as naught.
The great Ones help us to control our mind,
And guide us through the seven worlds.
பற்றது பற்றிற்பரமனைப் பற்றுமின்
முற்றதுவெல்லா முதல்வனருள் பெறில்
கிற்றவிரகிற் கிலரொளி வானவர்
கற்றவர் பேரின்ப முற்றிநின்றாரே. (9)
Seek ye the true support, hold to the Supreme.
Your desires will be satisfied, when His grace is gained.
With humility at heart, the learned will secure
The Bliss enjoyed by the bright immortals.
கடலிடையான் மலையானைந்து பூதத்
னிடமுடையார் நெஞ்சத்தில் லிருந்தானே. (10)
He who dwells in the broad sea and high Hills
Who dwells in all the bodies made of elements five
The God of Gods who rides ever the Sacred Bull
In the heart of the truly learned He dwells.
CONTROL BORN OF LEARNING.
அறந்கேட்டு மந்தணராய் மொழிகேட்டு
மறங்கேட்டும் லானவர் மந்திரகேட்டும்
புறங்கேட்டும் பொன்புரைமேனி யெம்மீசன்
றிறங்கேட்டும் பெற்றசிவகதி தானே. (1)
They hear of Dharma, of the words of the Seers
They hear of Sin, of mantras sacred to gods.
They hear of other truths and the Truth of our Lord
Then do they reach Siva’s true goal.
னோதுமின் கேண்மினுணர்மி னுணர்ந்தபி
னோதி யுணர்ந்தரோங்கி நின்றாரே. (2)
The God of Gods, the Form Effulgent
Who can know? Knowing Him,
Praise Him, listen to His praise and think of Him,
Then will they stand high above all.
மயன்பணி கேட்பதுமாநந்தி கேட்பி
னயன்பணி கேட்பதான் பணியாலே
சிவன்பணி கேட்பவர் தேவருமாவர்
பயன்பணி கேட்பது பற்றதுவாமே. (3)
It is the command of Nandi, that Vishnu obeys;
It is the command of Hara, that Brahman obeys;
They become Gods who obey Siva’s commands.
Such obedience is the true support.
திருமானிடர் பின்னைத் தேவருமாவ
ரகுமாதவர்க்கு மகிழ்ந்தருள் செய்யு
மருமாதவத் தெங்களாதிப் பிரானே. (4)
The Holy men who praise the Supreme
Will even become the immortal Gods
The Ancient of days will shower His grace
With gladness on men of rare tapas.
ஈசனருளு மிறப்பும் பிறப்பையும்
பேசியிருந்து பிதற்றி மகிழ்வெய்தி
நேசமுமாகு நிகழொளியாய் நின்று
வாசமலர்க்கந்த மன்னி நின்றானே. (5)
Meditating on the sorrow of birth and death,
One dwells in pleasure on praise of Isa’s grace.
God covers him with His far spreading Light, in love
Who dwells in us as fragrance in flower.
விழுப்பங்கெழுமியு மெய்நின்ற ஞானத்
தொழுக்கமுஞ் சிந்தையுணர்கின்ற போது
வழுக்கிவிடாவிடில் வானவர் கோனு
மிழுக்கின்றி யெண்ணிலி காலமதாமே. (6)
With love ever rising and in true wisdom
Deed and thought ever poised, ever resting,
One becomes the Lord of the Gods
Without doubt and for countless ages.
சிறியார் மணற்சோற்றிற் றேக்கிடுமாபோற்
செறிவாலனுபோகஞ் சித்திக்கு மென்னிற்
குறியாத தொன்றைக் குறியாதார் தம்மை
யறியாதிருந்தா ரவரவ ரன்றே. (7)
Like unto children delighted with sand-boiled rice,
You can secure bliss born of the senses, you fancy.
If you think not of One who is past thought
Then you will not be thought of at all by God.
முறுதுணையாவ துலகுறு கேள்வி
செறிதுணையாவது சிவனடிச் சிந்தை
பெறுதுணை கேட்கிற் பிறப்பில்லை தானே. (8)
The soul and body are the true support of each other;
The learning from true men is your true support;
The Thought of Sivam is your near support;
If one listens to this support, gets he no birth.
புகழநின்றார்க்கும் புராண னெம்மீச
னிகழ நின்றார்க்கு மிடும்பைக் கிடமா
கழிய நின்றார்க்கொரு கற்பசுவாமே. (9)
Our Isa is the most praised Ancient of Days;
He who derides God reaps only pain;
Without praising and knowing God in love
One spends his days, a stone-cow he secures.
வைத்துணர்ந்தான் மனத்தோடும் வாய்பேசி
யொத்துணர்ந்தானுரு வொன்றொ டொன்றெவ்வா
தச்சுழ்ன்றணி கலங்கினு மாதியை
நச்சுணர்ந்தார்க்கே நணுகலுமாமே. (10)
Though in different births and different forms
One in tossed about and shaken in mind,
Steadfast in thought, mind, and speech
One loves God, he reaches His Feet.
கல்லா தவருங் கருத்தறி காட்சியை
வல்லா ரெனிலருட் கண்ணான் மதித்துளோர்
கல்லாதா ருண்மையற் றாநிர்டர் கற்றோருங்
கல்லாதார் பேரின்பங் காணுகி லாரே.
If the untaught are able to grasp the vision of Inner sense,
They are those who see with the Eye of Grace.
They alone grasp the Truth – Their great Bliss
The learned cannot embrace. (1)
This reproduces the thought of the Kenopanishad.
“He by whom It (Brahman) is not thought, by him
It is thought; he by whom it is thought, knows It not.
It is not understood by those who understand It;
It is understood by those who do not understand It.”
That is God cannot be known by man’s சுட்டறிவு or objective knowledge (Pasa and Pasujnana) but by the eye of Grace or Patijnana.
வல்லார் களென்றும் வழியொன்றி வாழ்கின்றா
ரல்லா தவர்க னறிவுபல வென்பா
ரெல்லா விடத்து முளனெங்க டம்மிறை
கல்லா தவர்கள் கலப்பறி யாரே.
The mighty live ever united to one path;
The weak ones say, “Wisdom is various”;
Our supreme Lord is ever present in all;
His union with all, the ignorant know not. (2)
நில்லா நிலையை நிலையாக நெஞ்சத்து
நில்லாக் குரம்பை நிலையென் றுணர்வீர்கா
ளெல்லா வுயிர்க்கு மிறைவனே யாயினுங்
கல்லாதார் நெஞ்சத்துக் காண வொண்ணாதே.
O Ye that think in your heart of hearts
The mortal body is all permanent!
The Lord though present in all the souls
Will not appear to thee without any light. (3)
கில்லேன் வினைத்துய ராக்கு மயலானேன்
சல்லே னரனெறி யறியாத் தகைமையின்
வல்லேன் வழங்கும் பொருளே மனத்தினுட்
கல்லேன் கழியரின் றாடவல் லேனே.
Deluded am I by acts producing sorrow,
Learned am I not in the paths of the Lord,
Learned in the ways of the world, I don’t gain inner vision,
The inner vision with which I could transcend the world. (4)
நில்லாது சீவனிலை யன்றென வெண்ணி
வல்லா ரறத்துந் தவத்துளு மாயினார்
கல்லா மனிதர் கயவ ருலகினிற்
பொல்லா வினைத்துயர் போகஞ்செய் வாரே.
Perceiving that the soul’s condition is evanescent
The mighty engage in Tapas and work;
The worst of the earth are the ignorant
Destined to reap the sorrow of bad work. (5)
விண்ணினி னுள்ளே விளைந்த விளங்கனி
கண்ணினி னுள்ளே கலந்தங் கிருந்தது
மண்ணினி னுள்ளே மதித்து மதித்துநின்
றெண்ணி யெழுதி யிளைத்து விட்டாரே.
The immortal fruit born of Heaven,
Fully lighted the inside of my eye.
Those who pondered on earth, earth alone,
Wasted indeed is their labor in vain. (6)
கணக்கறிந் தார்க்கன்றிக் காணவொண் ணாது
கணக்கறிந் தார்க்கன்றிக் கைகூடாக காட்சி
கணக்கறிர் துண்மையைக் கண்டண் டநிற்குங்
கணக்கறிக் தார்கல்வி கற்றறிந் தாரே.
None but the wise in numbers can see That,
None but the wise can catch the Vision fair,
They that can count how these vast worlds are placed
They will alone count as learned men rare. (7)
கல்லாத மூடரைக் காணவு மாகாது
கல்லாத மூடர்சொற் கேட்கக் டகனன்று
கல்லாத மூடர்க்குத் கல்லாதார் நல்லாரங்
கல்லாத மூடர் கருத்தறி யாரே.
The Ancient Lord, The Light Supreme of Gods,
The Great Deva approached by enlightened souls,
They can know Him they think by learning words,
They know not well how inner light guides all. (8)
கற்றுஞ் சிவஞான மில்லாக் கலதிகள்
சுற்றமும் லீடார் துரிசறார் மூடர்கண்
மற்றும் பலதிசை காணார் மதியிலோர்
கற்றன் பினிற்போர் கணக்கறிந் தார்களே.
The learned fools, without true Sivajnana
Free not themselves from clogs of kith and sin,
The all-present everywhere they cannot see
In numbers wise are they who live in love. (9)
ஆதிப் பிரானம ர்ர்க்கும் பரஞ்சுடர்
சோதி யடியார்த் துடரும் பெருதெய்வ
மோதி யுணரவல் லோமென்ப ருண்ணின்ற
சோதி நடத்துந் துடர்வறி யாரே.
Good it is not, to see the untaught fools,
Good it is not, to hear the untaught fools,
Sweet are the ignorant to untaught fools.
The truth of things know not the untaught fools. (10)
நடுவுநின் றார்க்கன் றிஞானமு மில்லை.
நடுவுநின் றார்க்கு நரகமு மில்லை
நடுவுநின் றார்நல் லதேவரு மாவர்
நடுவுநின் றார்வழி நானுநின் றேனே.
None but the just attain jnana,
None but the just defeat the Hell,
None but the just become the Gods,
The Path of the just do I pursue. (1)
நடுவுநிலைமை is the same as இருவினையொப்பு or Samatula or becoming balanced in good or evil. It is not indifference. Just as the central point of the balance should not incline to this scale or that scale but should remain perfectly straight, so should not a man be influenced by pleasure and pain, kama and krodha in doing his duty. Then he does not perform karma, does not merit hell, does attain jnana and the supreme abode of the God of Gods.
நடுவுநின் றானல்ல கார்முகில் வண்ண
நடுவுநின் றானல்ல நான்மறை யோதி
நடுவுநின் றார்சிலர் ஞானிக ளலோர்
நடுவுநின் றார்நல் லநம்பனு மாமே.
The cloud-hued God, he did hold straight,
The good Brahman he did hold straight,
Some jnanis true they did hold straight,
Our Father true He did hold straight. (2)
The just become some jnanis true,
The just become some Devas sure,
The just become our father Lord,
Even I with the just do stand. (3)
நடுவுநின் றார்சிலர் ஞானிக ளாவர்
நடுவுநின் றார்சிலர் தேவரு மாவர்
நடுவுநின் றார்சிலர் நம்பனு மாலர்
நடுவுநின் றாரோடு நானுநின் றேனே.
தோன்றிய வெல்லாந் துடைப்பன வன்றிவ
ரேன்றுநின் றாரென் றுமீச னிணையடி
மூன்றுநின் றார்முதல் வன்றிரு நாமத்தை
நான்றுநின் றார்நடு வாகிநின்றாரே.
The Just praise God who destroys all created things,
The Just unite themselves to Isa’s feet,
The Just utter the name of God,
Who is the first cause of all. (4)
கழுநீர்ப் பசுப்பெறிற் கயந்தொறுந் தேராக்
கழுநீர் விடாய்த்துத்தங் காயஞ் சுருக்கு
முழுநீர் கள்ளுண்போர் முறைமை யகன்றோர்
செழுநீர்ச் சிவன்றன் சிவானந்தத் தேறலே.
The cows won’t drink in many pools if Kalunir is got;
Thirsting after Kalunir their bodies shrink;
They who drink toddy, They had left the path;
The ambrosia of Siav’s Sivananda is the water of life.
Kalunir is the water in which rice is washed, and which is safely collected every day by the housewife, for feeding cow and cattle and is very fattening. When kept long, it turns into sour toddy or Vinegar. Cattle once accustomed to this drink, will not touch even the freshest water. The author compares the drink-crave to this. The only satisfying drink is the drink of Siva’s Bliss.
சித்த முருக்கிச் சிவமாஞ் சமாதியில்
ஒத்துச் சிவானந்த மோவாத தேறலைச்
சுத்த மதுவுண்ணச் சிவானந்தம் விட்டிடா
நித்த லிருத்தல் கிட்த்தல்கீழ்க் காலே.
2. Senses controlled, with Siva in Samadi becoming at one,
In that pure state, one drinks the eternal nectar of Sivananda,
Then this Sivananda will not leave him –
It is in the Lower state (Sakalavasta), he lies down and sits.
All acts, all karma, good and bad occur in the lower plane, but there is eternal peace and rest and Sivanubhava in the pure condition of the soul and from which there is no return.
The contrast is to the oblivion of the world attained by the sanctified and the physical and mental oblivion like death sought by drugs and spirituous liquor. See verses 5 and 6, Ch. xciii Kural.
காமமுங் கள்ளுங் கலதிகட் கேயாகு
மாமல முஞ்சம யத்துள் மயலுறம்
போமதி யாகும் புனித னிணையடி
போமய வானந்தத் தேற லுணர்வுண்டே.
3. Women and wine are for wretches fit,
Filled by Anava and deluded by heterodox sects
Thus are they ruined. To the Twin Feet of The Pure,
Attached, one enjoys the nectar of Ananda.
Note how the author attacks in this and following verses the perverted teachings and practices of the Vama-margis. There can be no comparison between the goals of this school and the truth.
There is no comparison between the pleasures of the one, and the Bliss of the Siddhanta. If ever any comparison was intended at all, it was in the method to be used in both practices. One has to lose oneself to secure the highest physical pleasure, and he has to turn his heart towards God and lose himself there to achieve the Goal.
வாமத்தோர் தாமு மதுவுண்டு மாள்பவர்
காமத்தோர் காமக் கள்ளுண்டே கலங்குவர்
ஒமத்தோர் ருள்ளொளிக் குள்ளே யுணர்வர்கண்
ணாமத்தோ ரன்றே நணுகுவர் தாமே.
4. The Vami drinks and poses himself;
The lustful lust after lust and are confused;
The Yogi perceives the Light within the Inner Light;
The chanters of the Vedas did the same that day approach.
We have translated ஒமத்தோர், literally those who perform the Homa, as Yogis, and நாமத்தோர் as Vedic Rishis, as the reference is clearly to their esoteric practices and experiences. The author seems to suggest, that the eating of meat and drinking of wine sanctioned in the Vedic rituals are only symbolical and should not be quoted as authority for all perverted practices. The Pasu killed at the sacrifice is our own pasutva, animlaity, egoity and not a real wild animal, and when this is slaughtered, one partakes of the heavenly nectar. Our egoity hides the Light which is ever shining inside, our own heart; and we reach it when we become at-one with it by practicing Tatvamasi or Sivohambavana.
உள்ளுண்மை யோரா ருணரார் பசுபாசம்
வள்ளன்மை நாத னருளினின் வாழ்வுறார்
தெள்ளுண்மை ஞானச் சிவயோகாஞ் சேர்வுறார்
கள்ளுண்ணு மாந்தர் கருத்தறி யாரே.
5. The inner secret They know not. They know not the nature of Pasu and Pasa;
They know not to dwell in the Love of our gracious Lord;
They reach not the clear Light of Sivajnana-Yoga;
These palm-wine drinkers know not the object of their life.
மயக்கஞ் சமய மலமன்னு மூடர்
மயக்கு மதுவுண்ணு மாமூடர் தேரார்
மயக்குறு மாயையின் மாமாயை வீடு
மயக்கிற் றெளியின் மயக்குறு மன்றே.
6. The fools that dwell in impure religious that delude
They drink the wine that cloud and gained no clearness.
(One thinks) to gain mahamaya over maya is release.
Even the clearness gained after stupefaction is delusion still.
The sense of the last two lines it is difficult to gather. The reference is to the vamamargi who thinks he is trying to transcend the world (maya) by adoring Mahamaya (Goddess Kali) but his practices only lower him still. It is not by such practices one can really get clear of his sense control.
மயங்குத் தியங்குங்கள் வாய்மை யழிக்கும்
இயங்கு மடவார்தம்மின்ப மேயெய்தி
முயங்கு நயங்கொண்ட ஞானத்து முந்தார்
இயங்கு மிடையறா வானந்த மெய்துமே.
7. Wine deludes and bewilders one, and destroys his truth; The swaying maidens, their sole pleasure gained,
They joyed; not possessed of such silly knowledge,
They gained the Bliss that knows no bar.
இராப்பக வற்ற மிடத் தேயிருந்து
பராக்கற வானந்தத் தேறல் பருகார்
இராப்ப கலற்ற விறையடி யின்பத்
திராப்பகன் மாயை யிரண்டிடத் தேனே.
8. Dwelling where there is neither night nor day,
Dwelling in the Blessful Feet of the Lord who knows neither night nor day.
I drank the nectar of Bliss without other thought.
I who dwelt in the day and night of Maya.
The Lord is beyond all limitations of Time and space. He is the partless and magnitudeless point whose centre is everywhere. The soul is however fixed to the centre of the wheel of Samsara and suffers in kevala avasta (night) and Sakala avasta (day).
சத்தியை வேண்டித் சமயத்தோர் கள்ளுண்பர்
சத்திய ழிந்தது தம்மை மறத்தலால்
சத்தி சிவஞானந் தன்னிற் றலைப்பட்டுச்
சத்திய ஞானவா னந்தத்திற் சார்தலே.
9. Praying to the Sakti, The Vamis drank palm-wine;
The Sakti died, as they forget themselves.
The True worship of Sakti is, attaining Sivajnana
And merging in Satchit Ananda.
சத்த னருடரிற் சத்தி யருளுண்டாஞ்
சத்தி யருடரிற் சத்த னருளுண்டாளு
சத்தி சிவமா யிரண்டுந்தன் னுள்வைக்கச்
சத்தியு மெண்சித் தித்தன்மையு மாமே.
10. When Siva shows Grace, His sakti will also show;
When Sakti grants grace, Siva will also do the same
When Sakti and Siva, both he places in his heart
He attains real power and the eight siddhis.
Compare Verse I, of Koyinmutta Tiruppadikam of Tiruvachaka for the mystical union of God and sakti and soul.
“The mistress dwells in midmost of Thyself;
Within the Mistress centred dwellest Thou;
Midst of Thy servant lip Ye both do dwell,
To me Thy servant ever give the grace.”
(Dr. Pope’s Translation).
தத்துவ நீக்கி மருணீக்கித் தானாகி
பொய்த்தவ நீக்கிமெய்ப் போகத்துட் போக்கியே
மெய்த்த சகமுண்டு விட்டுப் பரானந்தச்
சித்திய தாக்குஞ் சிவானந்தத் தேறலே.
11. Freedom from Tattvas, and delusion, and gain of self,
Removal of false Tapas, and gain of True Bhoga,
The swallowing of this apparent world and the gain of Parananda,
All these secures The nectar of Sivananda.
Tattvas are 36 in number and are evolutes of Maya. மருள் translated as delusion is the Anavamala or Avidya as defined by St. Tiruvalluvar, Chap. 36, verse 1. When one dies to the World and its apparent pleasures, one gains his real self and the vision Pure. The swallowing of the world is the same act that is symbolized by God swallowing the poison; which at once showered ambrosia. See my Siva Bhakta Vilas, Chap, II, for fuller treatment, (Indian Patriot, April 11, 1913).
யோகிகள் கால்கட்டி யொண்மதி யானந்த
போத அமுதைப் பொசித்தவ ரெண்டுசித்தி
மோகியர் கள்ளுண்டு மூடராப் மோகமுற்
றாறு மதத்தா லறிவழிந் தாரே.
12. The Yogis, breath controlled, the Bright moon;s Bliss,
The ambrosial Food they gained with Eight siddhis;
The lustful drank wine and lusting, became fools,
And lost their senses wallowing in the six alien sects.
உண்ணீர முத முறுமூற லைத்திறத்
தெண்ணீர் குரவ னிணையடித் தாமரை
ரண்ணீர் சமாதியி னாடி னிரானலங்
கண்ணா ரொடேசென்று கால் வழிகாணுமே.
13. Drink ye the nectar opening the spring of Life;
Reach ye the Twin lotus Feet of The Teacher of clear sense;
Rest in samadhi, following Kundali’s Sakti
And with breath duly controlled.
(End of First Tantra).